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Understanding Health Complications and Social Issues

  • 9 Pages
  • Published On: 18-12-2023
Introduction

The presence of good health is important to support enhanced living and well-being. The assignment will analyse the health complication and related factors causing the health and social issues mentioned in the case study of Mr and Mrs Patel. The analysis is to be made for initially identifying and explaining the key factors that are related to the health adversity and hindered well-being of Mr and Mrs Patel. The assignment will further inform the health inequalities which might impact Mr and Mrs Patel. Thirdly, the assignment will discuss the potential impact of poor health of Mrs Patel on her health and well-being.

Part 1

Health and well-being are referred to enhanced physical, social and mental condition of the patients or individuals along with absence of any disease or illness (Stiglic and Viner, 2019). There are different emotional, physical, spiritual, social and psychotypological determinants or factors of health that influence the well-being of individuals (Hall et al., 2019). The physical health determinant of lack of space for enhanced living is adversely affecting the health of Mr and Mrs Patel. This is evident as both are seen to be sleeping in the living room on the sofa and bed and mentioned their living space in urgent need of maintenance out of being in very poor condition. The study by Grey et al (2017) mention that shortage of living space and proper living facility negatively affect the psychological health of the individuals. This is because the short and unhealthy space makes individuals unable to effectively relax and sleep leading deprivation of rest which is related with poor psychological well-being such as stress and depression (Yang et al, 2020). Thus, lack of effective resting place and sleeping with hindrance on the sofa may have led Mrs Patel and hindered living environment may have led Mr Patel to be further depressed and fail in controlled stress which may have adversely affected their well-being.

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The social determinant of health influencing adverse health and well-being for Mr and Mrs Patel is lack of enhanced income and unemployment of Mr Patel. As mentioned by Nieuwenhuis and Maldonado (2018), presence of enhancing income and employment support enhanced health and well-being of individuals. This is because it creates economic stability for the individuals to have adequate finances to be spent in accessing quality healthcare and living resources. As argued by Daniel et al (2018), lack of adequate income and unemployment in family leads to hinder their health and well-being. This is because lack of stable income and adequate employed people in the family lead to economic crisis. The family members face hardship in meeting everyday needs which hindered their physical as well as mental health as they are depressed and stress with the situation and unable to arrange adequate care resources to improve physical health (Vandevala et al., 2017). It is evident as Mr and Mrs Patel are seen to be facing hindered economic condition after unemployment of Mr Patel due to lung cancer. This has led them face hindrance in meeting daily needs of the family and affected the mental health of Mr Patel to be more depressed and physical health of Mrs Patel to develop increased weight through comfort eating out of deteriorated emotional health.

The psychological health determinant such as hostility (being alone) and hopelessness are also seen to adversely affected the health and well-being of Mr and Mrs Patel. This is evident as Mr Patel is seen leaving home only for buying food and had stopped interacting with others from the society after he stopped working complete on detection of lung cancer. Moreover, the hopelessness of trying to manage changed circumstances at home has led Mrs Patel to be stressed and involved in comfort eating that has raised her body weight.

Part 2

Health inequalities are referred to differences in heath status that hinders effective distribution of healthcare resources among different group of population which arises from the social condition where they are born, live, work and age (McCartney et al., 2019). The presence of poverty is one of the factors that promote health inequality. This is because people living below the poverty line or living in poor conditions are seen to lack presence of adequate financial resource and support to access quality healthcare and assistance for improving health outcomes (Hodgetts and Stolte, 2017). However, people who are living above poverty and have affluent standards are seen to have adequate materialist and economic efficiency and support to have enhanced health outcome out of availability and their capability of making arrangement of best healthcare support for them (Lago et al., 2018). In case of Mr and Mrs Patel, it is seen that they are poor and facing poverty which is affecting them to lack adequate money and capability of having resources to promote enhanced living environment. It is impacting them to live in deteriorated and poor physical environment which is making them further depressed with their life and hindrance in accessing proper healthcare support.

The gender is another factor that creates health inequality as women are seen to be living under more pressure and responsibilities to be fulfilled compared to men (Harnois and Bastos, 2018). The study by Gavurova et al (2020) mentioned that though women live longer than men, they are seen to spent lesser year in good health as they are often socially excluded to avail enhanced healthcare and burden with caring responsivities. The increased care responsibilities cause women compared to men develop hindered physical and mental health consequences which lower their well-being in society (Heymann et al., 2019). This is evident as seen in case of Mr and Mrs Patel, where Mr Patel even though being present entire day home does not assist Mrs Patel to care for his ailing mother who also lives with them. The entire responsibility of care for the family and the management of care for the mother-in-law with minimum assistance from the children in her care by Mr Patel is seen to led her to be stressed and involve in comfort eating that has eventually make her develop extra body weight.

The Marmot Report regarding health inequalities mentions that poor social class of people face adverse health condition out of being unable to avail potential resource and support for healthcare (local.gov.uk, 2018). It mentioned that people living in poor area and belonging from lower social class would lie sooner and spend increased increases year of life with disability and hindered health condition (local.gov.uk, 2018). This is evident as Mr Patel belongs from poor social background and deprived living area in England and being only in mid-50s while suffering from lung cancer has already led him to live year of disability by being permanently unable to work and participate in household chores.

Part 3

The potential health impact of being overweight on Mrs Patel would be that her cardiovascular health is to be gradually hindered and she may develop further health complications. The overweight mainly develop due to increased addition of unwanted fat in the body out of comfort eating of pleasurable and unhealth food (Martín-Espinosa et al, 2017). The increased addition of body fat makes the body have reduced aerobic activity and lead the heart to face hardship in pumping blood to the other parts of the body. This creates increased strain on the arteries making them face resistance in enhance blood flow which gradually leads to high blood pressure (Tebar et al, 2018). Thus, Mrs Patel overweight condition impact her to be at risk of developing high blood pressure that may eventually make her develop risk of facing adverse cardiovascular health. This is because high blood pressure overtime creates aberration of the inner lining of the arteries that led to formation of atherosclerosis. This condition gradually causes blockage of the arteries and hindered supply of blood to the brain and heart which may lead to stroke (Rist et al, 2017).

The impact of comfort eating by Mrs Patel would eventually lead her to be obese and develop risk of diabetes. This is evident as she is found already to be overweight which is previous stage of being obese. The increased body weight causes fats deposition of the inner muscles of the body which leads to create resistance from the muscles to use glucose from the blood. It results in raising blood sugar level as the developed glucose are incapable to be used by the muscle cells and energy and contribute the individual to be at risk of type-2 diabetes (Bjerregaard et al, 2018). The Health Belief Model mentions under perceived susceptibility and severity that individuals who are aware of their susceptibility toward any health risk and severe adversity to be faced out of their health condition develop change in behaviour towards engaging in health actions (Mohammadi et al, 2018). However, in case of Mrs Patel, it is seen that no such awareness is created to inform regarding her comfort eating habit which has led her to continue the action and be at risk of developing obesity and diabetes as additional health issue. The poor psychological condition created due to increased family pressure, income and care responsibility in case of Mrs Patel would adversely impact her health to develop increased depression later in life. this is because of the helplessness attitude regarding her other complication in life which eventually disrupts her well-being (García-Mayor and García-Soidán, 2017).

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Conclusion

The discussion mentioned that deteriorated living space is one of the physical health determinants affecting Mr and Mrs Patel’s health and well-being. Moreover, the lack of emotional stability, stress and depression as psychological determinant and income instability and unemployment as social determinant influences health of Mr and Mrs Patel. The health inequalities are raised in case of Patel’s include gender, poverty and social class. The current health condition and behaviour of Mrs Patel impacts her to be at risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, poor aerobic condition and others.

References

Bjerregaard, L.G., Jensen, B.W., Ängquist, L., Osler, M., Sørensen, T.I. and Baker, J.L., 2018. Change in overweight from childhood to early adulthood and risk of type 2 diabetes. New England Journal of Medicine.pp.34-67.

Daniel, H., Bornstein, S.S. and Kane, G.C., 2018. Addressing social determinants to improve patient care and promote health equity: an American College of Physicians position paper. Annals of Internal Medicine, 168(8), pp.577-578.

García-Mayor, R.V. and García-Soidán, F.J., 2017. Eating disoders in type 2 diabetic people: Brief review. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews, 11(3), pp.221-224.

Gavurova, B., Ivankova, V., Rigelsky, M. and Suler, P., 2020. Gender health inequalities and economic productivity in OECD countries. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja, pp.1-20.

Grey, C.N., Jiang, S., Nascimento, C., Rodgers, S.E., Johnson, R., Lyons, R.A. and Poortinga, W., 2017. The short-term health and psychosocial impacts of domestic energy efficiency investments in low-income areas: a controlled before and after study. BMC Public Health, 17(1), pp.1-10.

Hall, B.J., Garabiles, M.R. and Latkin, C.A., 2019. Work life, relationship, and policy determinants of health and well-being among Filipino domestic Workers in China: a qualitative study. BMC public health, 19(1), pp.1-14.

Harnois, C.E. and Bastos, J.L., 2018. Discrimination, harassment, and gendered health inequalities: do perceptions of workplace mistreatment contribute to the gender gap in self-reported health?. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 59(2), pp.283-299.

Heymann, J., Levy, J.K., Bose, B., Ríos-Salas, V., Mekonen, Y., Swaminathan, H., Omidakhsh, N., Gadoth, A., Huh, K., Greene, M.E. and Darmstadt, G.L., 2019. Improving health with programmatic, legal, and policy approaches to reduce gender inequality and change restrictive gender norms. The Lancet, 393(10190), pp.2522-2534.

Hodgetts, D. and Stolte, O., 2017. Urban poverty and health inequalities: A relational approach. Routledge.

Lago, S., Cantarero, D., Rivera, B., Pascual, M., Blázquez-Fernández, C., Casal, B. and Reyes, F., 2018. Socioeconomic status, health inequalities and non-communicable diseases: a systematic review. Journal of Public Health, 26(1), pp.1-14.

Martín-Espinosa, N., Díez-Fernández, A., Sánchez-López, M., Rivero-Merino, I., Lucas-De La Cruz, L., Solera-Martinez, M., Martinez-Vizcaino, V. and Movi-Kids group, 2017. Prevalence of high blood pressure and association with obesity in Spanish schoolchildren aged 4–6 years old. PLoS One, 12(1), p.e0170926.

McCartney, G., Popham, F., McMaster, R. and Cumbers, A., 2019. Defining health and health inequalities. Public Health, 172, pp.22-30.

Mohammadi, S., Karim, N.A., Talib, R.A. and Amani, R., 2018. The impact of self-efficacy education based on the health belief model in Iranian patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled intervention study. Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition, 27(3), pp.546-555.

Nieuwenhuis, R. and Maldonado, L., 2018. The triple bind of single-parent families: Resources, employment and policies to improve well-being. Policy Press.

Rist, P.M., Capistrant, B.D., Mayeda, E.R., Liu, S.Y. and Glymour, M.M., 2017. Physical activity, but not body mass index, predicts less disability before and after stroke. Neurology, 88(18), pp.1718-1726.

Stiglic, N. and Viner, R.M., 2019. Effects of screentime on the health and well-being of children and adolescents: a systematic review of reviews. BMJ open, 9(1), p.e023191.

Tebar, W.R., Ritti-Dias, R.M., Farah, B.Q., Zanuto, E.F., Vanderlei, L.C.M. and Christofaro, D.G.D., 2018. High blood pressure and its relationship to adiposity in a school-aged population: body mass index vs waist circumference. Hypertension Research, 41(2), pp.135-140.

Vandevala, T., Pavey, L., Chelidoni, O., Chang, N.F., Creagh-Brown, B. and Cox, A., 2017. Psychological rumination and recovery from work in intensive care professionals: associations with stress, burnout, depression and health. Journal of intensive care, 5(1), pp.1-8.

Yang, L., Ho, J.Y., Wong, F.K., Chang, K.K., Chan, K.L., Wong, M.S., Ho, H.C., Yuen, J.W., Huang, J. and Siu, J.Y., 2020. Neighbourhood green space, perceived stress and sleep quality in an urban population. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 54, p.126763.


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