Pedagogy and Philosophy

  • 11 Pages
  • Published On: 17-11-2023

Friedrich Froebel theory of play suggests that play drives learning. In my innovation, there will be a water section, slide area, mud kitchen, sand area, and bicycles to enhance the play. Reinhold et al. (2017) states that, play promote young people curiosity to discover the functioning of many things and also help meet children needs. Thus creating a play area as demonstrated in the design promotes playfulness and young people active life and ultimately influence how young people study. Furthermore, McNair and Powell (2020) reveal that based on the Froebel theory of play, educators are supposed to design a physical environment that promotes learning and creativity. The need to meet study and innovation demand is met via designing play region, therefore this justifies the design of the play area.


Furthermore, Froebel theory of play states that young people can only learn what they are willing to learn. Therefore, the design includes regions like painting area, storybook area, play dough area, puzzle area, cooking region and blocks area. According to McNair and Powell (2020) it is important for educators to give young people what they require and offer them a chance to choose and make their decisions. Also they should also offer the ability to utilize their techniques and skills. McNair and Powell (2020) also demonstrates that learners should be allowed to learn how to sand, paint, play with clay and splash water. This proves that by designing play area which provides alternative for children can be very effective in promoting play thus the created design supporting the Froebel model of play. According to Marín- Murcia et al. (2020) young people requires personal space to construct and model thus justifying the created model.

Froebel theory of play also demonstrate that learning area should be a prepared environment. Therefore, the created design constructs different activities thus justifying the created design (Barsness, 2017). Barsness also add that, though study area might look alike, they should be designed for free play, thus should present learners with the required tools and material for maximum development. Moreover, learning is usually active when there is finger plays, songs and forms of movement (McNair & Powell, 2020).


Barsness, K., 2017. Are We Doing Kindergarten All Wrong?. Empowering Research for Educators, 1(1), p.2.

Marín Murcia, J.P. and Martínez Ruiz-Funes, M.J., 2020. Froebel and the teaching of botany: the garden in the Kindergarten Model School of Madrid. Paedagogica Historica, 56(1-2), pp.200-216.

McNair, L.J. and Powell, S., 2020. Friedrich Froebel: a path least trodden. Early Child Development and Care, pp.1-11.

Reinhold, S., Downton, A. and Livy, S., 2017. Revisiting Friedrich Froebel and His Gifts for Kindergarten: What Are the Benefits for Primary Mathematics Education?. Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia.

The case scenario demonstrates children in a school setting. After arriving in school, the children automatically know that they should proceed to class to start the day. The education setting is similar to Montessori education setting since it has a prepared environment where children can function and do things without educator “assistance”. The case scenario demonstrates Anna who is an elementary school child arriving in school. She already know what to do after arriving in school without supervision. The school environment is prepared in that it has a region to hung students items including bags and shoes and a learning maze. This prepared environment in the case study which provides students with the necessary tools like cooking ingredients matches Montessori's principles and pedagogy which advocates for a prepared learning environment where learners can learn and interact. According to Black and Davis (2015) learning environment must promote children learning and also enable them to perform activities without supervision. Therefore, it should be child-centered to optimize child freedom which enables children to explore material and tools of choice.

Furthermore, Ervin et al. (2010) reveal that educators design an effective learning surrounding by ensuring that all necessary materials and tools are available for learners. This indicates that the Montessori curriculum is important because it provides creative environment and hands-on learning environment which is important for young people learning and interaction. However, according to Black and Davis (2015) this kind of education is accessible to everyone since it is very costly.

Moreover, the education is automated, and young people are expected to know what to do at specific time – schedules and procedure. For instance, the case study reveal that after coming to school, pupils proceed direct to classroom and start preparing snacks. Similarly, after preparing snacks, children participate in other learning activities within prepared environment- for example, Anna plays maze. Ervin et al. (2010) states that education automated environment is vital it promotes self-education and learners are able to educate themselves without need of supervision thus promoting creativity. Therefore in this environment, educators must offer inspiration, environment, and guidance for learners to educate themselves and be creative. For instance, from the case study, it is evident that Tariq and Anna explore strawberries in the garden. This is indication of the promotion of self-learning and flexibility. The curriculum develops independence and soft skills, though it is only applicable to a small pupil population (Montessori, 2013).

The case scenario show respect for the child through offering them the freedom of choices. For example, from the case study, after Frances visits the garden, he starts to gather flowers to decorate the tables. The action of the student show how the curriculum opens opportunity for learning. Additionally, it demonstrates how the curriculum promotes freedom of learning and creativity. Furthermore, Montessori (2013) reveal that, in this prepared learning environment, there is no interruption of children learning. This is indication that, it is important for teachers to offers their children chance to make choices and perform activities for themselves. The curriculum promotes creativity and is independent though literature show that the system can be too loose for learners thus making the students less prepared for job market (Crown, 2019). Order Now Moreover, the pedagogy offers absorbent mind opportunity. From then case scenario, it is evident that learners are allowed to visit the garden, prepare snacks, and wash their plates after preparing and eating their snacks. This is evidence that just like the Montessori's education, the case study education setting provides learners with opportunity to learn maximally from the world around them. Crown (2019) states that the best education is based on the idea that learners are continually learning from their surrounding and interactions. The study also reveal that best education also assumes that learners continually absorb information from their environment and promote their innovation. This is a clear indication of the curriculum's is able to promote soft skills development. Also the case study offers a surrounding where learners study in a prepared surrounding; where curriculum is automated, there is respect for learners and there offers absorbent mind a learning opportunity.


Black, C. and Davis, L., 2015. Montessori All Day, All Year. NAMTA Journal, 40(3), pp.107-121.

Crown, H. (2019). a guide to Montessori and Steiner qualifications: Specialist training. Nursery World, 2019(13), 32-32.

Ervin, B., Wash, P.D. and Mecca, M.E., 2010. A 3-year study of self-regulation in Montessori and non-Montessori classrooms. Montessori Life, 22(2), p.22.

Montessori, M. (2013). The Montessori Method. Transaction publishers.

Unit 3

The Steiner curriculum is characterized by rhythm, repetition, and reverence (3R). Additionally, these aspects are exceptionally important during the early years of learning and in setting life habits. The curriculum reveal that learners can safely rely on what happens in their environment through creation of rhythm, thus impacting retention of information and learning (Childs, 1991).

According to the Steiner kindergarten, there is development of a nurturing environment that includes a natural play tools, garden, and chickens to look after. Nicol and Taplin (2017), states that rhythms enhances learning and ensures that it is more effective and comfortable. In Kindergarten, rhythm is often applied in free play, during snack time, bread making and in storytelling. The rhythm has been revealed to provide sequence and expertise, which make studying comfortable. Moreover, the rhythm also offers security sense, thus calming children. This model is therefore vital since learners focus on their innovative side of the Waldorf School. Also, students learn of their motivation and of themselves. However, research reveal that including the 3R's into the curriculum can make learners not to be equipped with appropriate hard skills. This indicates that, pupil prepared in this curriculum might make worst job candidates because most job positions are not cyclic and regular (Childs, 1991). However, the rhythm is significant in nurturing the pupil’s environment.

Reverence is another element of young people curriculum, and it is developed through several verses that are studied in developing strong literacy background. Dragana et al. (2017) states that Steiner kindergarten must assist learners to develop a healthy sense of being respected, awareness, and develop children concern for other individuals. Moreover, it should enable children to respect their surroundings. Montessori (2013) reveal that, the Montessori pedagogy setting respects learners by offering independence within learners. Childs (1991) states that reverence is a feeling of deep respect. Therefore, respect is applied in Steiner kindergarten model of curriculum. Reverence creates enthusiasm among learners and enable them to enjoy learning with no competitive aspects. Therefore, application of this model is vital in developing children ability to excel academically. Childs (1991) also states that the Steiner kindergarten education can enhance every learner’s inner spirit and create a sense of calmness and nourishment. This is important since it enables young learners to be innovative and appreciate the world around them. However, it also have limitation since children learn very slowly, and might not be able to learn the necessary skills required in job marketing (Childs (1991).

Another aspect of the curriculum is repetition. Moreover, repetition creates a sense of rhythm, maximize pupils’ security, and affect their learning ability and retain what they learn. Moreover, Wylie and Hagan (2003) suggest that Steiner kindergarten often makes pupil benefit from an unhurried setting thus making them learn from the world around them. Thus, this environment requires children to control themselves, develop physical coordination, be resilient, and develop speech and language. Therefore, integrating repetition to a pedagogy like gardening, looking for chicken, and preparing snacks can be important in mastering certain skills and techniques. Therefore, the three Rs are significant in Steiner kindergarten, particularly in mastering abilities and skills.


Childs, G., 1991. Steiner education in theory and practice.

Dragana, P., Stanisavljevic, P.Z. and Milan, M., 2017. Humanistic approach to early childhood education in the educational philosophy of Rudolf Steiner. Future Human Image, 8.

Nicol, J. and Taplin, J.T., 2017. Understanding the Steiner Waldorf approach: Early years education in practice. Routledge.

Wylie, K. and Hagan, M. 2003. ‘Steiner for the 21st century: The application of Waldorf principles to mainstream practice’, Irish Educational Studies, 22(1), pp.153-164.

The Reggio Emilia approach is an educational philosophy and pedagogy which focus on preschool and primary curriculum. It is based on responsibility, respect as well as community via discovery, play and exploration. Thus, this session will explore the way open-ended projects is similar to the Reggio model’s essential element and how the mechanism can be practiced.

Open projects offers pupil control over learning. Gandini (2003) states that just like a project, the Reggio approach enables learners to influence their learning and be the major learning initiators. Also just like a project, the approach provide for self-learning and independence. Gandini (2003) demonstrates that children are motivated by their learning interest and understanding independent learning. Also, open projects gives learners’ opportunity to choose topic and explore their knowledge and interests- Reggio model. Smith (2011) reveal that giving students’ ability to design their projects, knowledge, use their motivation to innovative. Therefore, open project just like the Reggio approach promote children's social development.

Furthermore, open project enables learners to study by experiences of observing, moving and touching. Smith (2010) reveal that, Reggio model include in-depth projects. The aspect is based on the principle that learners’ information begin from their fascination and curiosity. This demonstrates that, just like an open projects, the approach enables exploration. Furthermore, learners choose which direction to follow in terms of academics and research; therefore, the approach is best compared to an open project where members select what best suited their interest. Gandini (2003), states that open projects also applies the principles of the Reggio model via enabling learners to express their innovations, thoughts and understanding. The research also reveal that approach has been shown by artists where learning and exploration are expressed via drawing.

The open project allows learners to interact and develop relationships and substantial social skills. Harcourt (2015) reveal that the Reggio principles include the collaboration idea which is very important in enhancing a child's cognitive development. Young learners are therefore motivated to solve challenges using negotiation, comparisons, dialogue, and other vital communication skills. Also just like an open project, learners are categorized into groups and given tasks to develop a project. Thus, the approach is crucial in expressing oneself and socialization. Also it offers an opportunity to learn from each other. Elliott (2005) suggest that the Reggio model is evident in projects where learning occurs through interrelationships. Furthermore, open project task enables learners to discuss and argue before concluding their task. Therefore, working on a small project enhances the Reggio model idea.

Therefore, it is evident that the Reggio Emilia model is applicable in an open project where children are given control over the learning. Also children have opportunity to learn through observation, touching, and moving. Also, children are able to create a strong social skills relationship and interact with each other.


Elliott, E.M., 2005. Changing perspectives in early childhood education: Recasting the Reggio Emilia approach. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 25(2), pp.153-163.

Gandini, L. 2003. Values and principles of the Reggio Emilia approach. Insights and aspirations from Reggio Emilia: Stories of teachers and children.

Harcourt, D., 2015. Nothing without joy: the key principles of the Reggio Emilia approach. Educating Young Children: Learning and Teaching in the Early Childhood Years, 21(3), p.26.

Smith, A.P., 2011. The incorporation of principles of the Reggio Emilia approach in a North American pre-school music curriculum. Learning from young children: Research in early childhood music, pp.79-93.

Smith, A.P., 2010. The incorporation of principles of the Reggio Emilia approach in a North American pre-school music curriculum: An action research (Doctoral dissertation, Westminster Choir College of Rider University).

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