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Explain how Positive Behavioural Support has been influenced by: • Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) • Social Role Valorisation (SRV).
“Positive behavior support is identified as a form of applied behavior analysis, which uses a behavior management system to understand what maintains an individual's challenging behavior and how to change it” (Carley, 2019, p.84). A positive behavior support plan includes proactive strategies, which are destined to improve quality of life. Environmental adaptations can support new skills development and these are contributing to the individual learning capabilities. ABA or applied behavioral analysis tries to make changes to a person's environment that reinforces behaviors in order to support learning. I have found out that increasing a person’s quality of life is important since each human being is important and has some positive value to be incorporated into an individual's intellectual property development. It could have been better if the campaign was started in all layers of society.
I did some research on PBS and found out that it was effective in both severe and high-rate behavior problems. I found out that it worked in an institutional setting that solved difficult institutional problems of devaluing people and a certain community. SRV or social role valorization is identified as a dynamic set of ideas that makes a positive change in people's lives on the aspects which are causing a disadvantage in their social status of them. In PBS, person-centered planning and structural changes to service delivery systems are highly contributed by SRV. SRV is identified as a framework that underpins the "resource inclusive community's work" (Davis et al. 2018, p.344). It contributes to PBS, by helping in the understanding of human relationships and the devaluation of disabled people. The life experience of marginalized people is also analyzed and I believe with great support from the government and institutions these behavioral issues can be solved. The right things to be done are understood via aiming for greater responsibility development for students' behavior and reactions.
1.2 Summarise current legislation and policy guidance relating to Positive Behavioural Support
Conventional children's rights protection helps in managing the challenges that come upon children and ensures that they are being treated equally no matter what comes in the pathway of equally managing the child rights. I have come across the behavior guidance plan that documents strategies to assist an educator in guiding a child with diagnosed behavioral difficulties and fuel self-management of behaviors. Current legislation includes the development of moral sense and not punishments. This helps in differentiating between right and wrong and children are acting responsibly without supervision. Emphasizing consistency and showing appropriateness of practicing guidelines are related to children’s rights. Positive behavior is supported by showing how safe a child feels and what are good qualities about the child. Positive behavioral intervention in my opinion includes clear classroom routines, taking breaks, and including tangible reinforcers. Praising and non-verbal communication works well with the development of reinforcements.
I researched the aspects and found out that bullying takes place quite often in between children and they become morally imbalanced. Spreading hurtful and untruthful rumors about a person is identified to be cyberbullying and needs to be managed clearly. Offensive and degrading images via phone or internet is considered a crime and human rights law 1998 is taken into action to manage such behavioral threats. “The National Autistic Society provides help to people with autism and their families. The positive behavior support helpline is offering help to people with learning disabilities and living with covid-19 restrictions” (Klein et al. 2021, p.112). The interruption in behavior causes the child's family to become distressed. I have found out that policy focuses on legal components of the need for restraint intervention for people with learning disabilities. I participated in such campaigns where Children and young people are expected to raise their concerns and ask questions concerning positive behavior support.
2.1 2.2 2.3 Define the term ‘challenging behaviour’. Explain the reasons for the term challenging behaviour coming into use. Analyse key factors that lead to a behaviour being defined as challenging.
Challenging behavior is defined as behavior that is considered culturally abnormal. It is of such intensity, the frequency that the person and other concerned authorities can fall under serious threats.
Environment, livelihood, relationship, frustration are some of the common issues that lead to behavioral challenges. It denies access to the facilities provided to ordinary communities. I came across this situation during early school days were one of my classmates was suffering from a behavioral challenge issue. This classmate of mine was facing behavior challenges that made him struggle to communicate his needs and anxiety, abuse, dementia, and learning disabilities are part of his routine life. Challenging behavior is something that disrupts a child's learning and interferes with others. I have come across other studies that show that a child is unable to attend school due to aggressive behavior against fellow students or staff is termed as a behavioral challenge. There are even examples of behavior challenges where the “child is unable to visit other people’s homes or places such as restaurants or supermarkets as they would be at risk of destroying property” (Palm-Forster et al. 2019, p.719).
Communication difficulties, physical or mental health issues, sensory impairments, communication difficulties are key causes that lead to challenging behavior. Challenging behavior can lead to a poorer quality of life and might put their career at risk. Challenging behaviors can include aggression and self-harm. Social unacceptance also leads to more such behaviors acted by the kids. Limited independence and lack of participation in social activities put the kids at the risk of being socially inactive and their basic needs are not met most of the time. All the behavioral aspects can be revealed through the reward system and punishments are usually identified as a failure. A negative behavior with children can cause damage to their future.
18.104.22.168 Summarise key environmental risk factors for challenging behaviours and explain how slow and fast triggers contribute to challenging behaviour.
When a person who is receiving care feels rushed, patronized, and unimportant then it can easily trigger frustrations in them which is a core environmental risk factor in behavior challenges. This shows up as resistance and leads towards verbal aggression and these sometimes can become pretty risky. Summary of key environmental risk factors that influence people's behavior is the environment which is heat, light, noise, and privacy. Life experiences and needs are interventions that are found to be an important part of evaluating environmental challenges. I did come across one of my colleagues that possess behavioral challenges (Pesch, Julian, and Munzer, 2020, p.506). This lack of anger management becomes a great obstacle in the pathway of career development. From my area of research, I have found out that the way a person is raised, genetics, community, and culture all leaves an impact on behavioral aspects. Aggression can be in terms of self-injury like headbanging, biting oneself, cursing.
My assessment on possible triggers are Communication impairments result in difficulty in the understanding situation, Coexisting mental health issues like “attention deficit hyperactivity disorder” or ADHD, Change to personal circumstances and influenced development challenges like puberty and Inadvertent reinforcement of behavior along with physical environments like lighting and noise levels
Slow triggers make challenging behavior more likely to happen as they are the reason behind people not feeling the best. I have found that if we are aware of slow triggers then it helps in better understanding of a young person. On the other hand, a fast trigger occurs just before the behavior is about to take place and a quick activation is fueled. For example, a headache is a slow trigger that helps in understanding that a headache might approach in the next hour. On the other hand, if a student hits the teacher when the math worksheet is presented. Here, the math worksheet works like a trigger.
3.3 4.3 Analyse the role of reinforcement in maintaining behaviour. Explain how you complete accurate records of behaviour using a structured method
The role of reinforcement is quite effective in psychological principle development. Maintaining the behaviors that are shaped by the consequences is associated with reinforcement theory. Individual behaviors are changed through rewards and punishments. The role of reinforcements relates to teaching new skills and increasing on-task behavior. Reinforcers increase the likelihood of a behavioral response. It strengthens the rules to be operated within students. Using positive language develops a relationship with students and positive reinforcement works faster than punishments. The creation of stimulating lessons is important as it allows the teaching and learning process to move forward as planned. Praising and non-verbal communication works well with the development of reinforcements. It encourages desirable behaviors and discourages undesirable ones. I have applied the positive reinforcements with that kid that used to come to my house for playing. Spanking a child when he throws a tantrum is an example of positive punishment which I applied for the kid. B.F Skinner's operant conditioning theory makes one familiar with behaviorism. It is the foundation of rewards and punishment theory (Sheridan et al.2018, p.120). Once the behavior is rewarded it influences the young mind. On the other hand, if something is taken away from the child then the behavior is more likely to continue and regarded as negative reinforcements.
In structured observation, I am supposed to select which behaviors are existing in a particular interest area and which are not. A clear definition of characteristics of each behaviorism needs to be done so that all agree on the classification. Taking note of the frequency of target behavior and occurrence is part of this observation. Structured observation will follow controlled observation, naturalistic observation, participant observations as a part of the analysis of the situation. I have followed a systematic approach to collect data and describe them accurately and look after the causes of bad behavior among young people.
3.4 4.2 Explain the time intensity model and the key methods you use to analyse behaviour. Time-intensity mode
It is a model that shows the stages which a person goes through as a part of behavioral changes. The stages are described as: Calm: This stage allows an individual to be his usual self Agitation: It is a reaction that is associated with triggering emotions and memories that are brought into focus
De-escalation: This is one point of energy build-up that causes the behavior to dissipate and questions the individual on the actions and reactions. The energy build-up is both physical and emotional.
Recovery: It is identified as a healing period where the behavior is reflected upon and cycles return to a process (Carpenter et al. 2019, p. 1076).
Peak: At this point, the emotions and actions collide that creating an outburst of the behavior Acceleration: This is the point where the challenging behavior starts taking place Trigger: It is the starting point of the challenging side to the behavior where the reason for the behavior begins
I find it effective to analyze other people's behavior through having different quirks and patterns of behavior. Some deviations focus on clusters of gestures that I try to analyze in other people's behavior. Observing their working patterns and identifying any strong voice would help in reading others. I have used an observation method which is quite useful in areas where the experiments cannot be conducted. Children, mentally ill patients, and animals come under the observation process as naturalistic observation of components (Onojeghuo et al. 2019, p.16). The clinical method or case history method is commonly used in medical aspects where any mental illness will be looked after to understand the behavior changes. I also prefer the survey method which is used to gather information from a large number of people. Usually, questionnaires are designed to observe whether the kid is being influenced by the other environmental activities occurring around or not
4.1 5.1 Describe(a) the key components of functional analysis; (b) the key characteristics of Positive Behavioural Suppor
a) The challenging behavior can be understood by following the below image where key components of functional analysis are given.
(Source: https://www.camhsnorthderbyshire.nhs.uk/learning-disabilities-challenging-behaviour) Here, in the first case, the vegetables are taken away from the kid because the kid bites and reacts. On the other hand, Bob tries to get attention by banging his head on the floor. I have found out that the function of challenging behaviors is: Social attention: Getting noticed or acknowledged by others Tangible: To get something which they long for
Avoidance: To get away from a situation or task the person finds difficult b) Key characteristics of positive behavioral support are Person-centered approaches, Staff development and including relevant stakeholder, Assessment based intervention and reduction in punishments and Skill development and environment redesign (cdc.gov, 2021). The positive behavior support originated as a reaction to the inappropriate or abusive consequences that were applied to students having development and intellectual disabilities. Any conditions that promote behavior challenges will be analyzed and learning support will be generated. Autistic spectrum conditions and mental health difficulties are focused on positive and proactive care under health and safety legislation. In order to meet the health and safety needs, the welfare of kids is included in the overall behavioral development of students. Recovery based approach is delivered in children's behavioral services since there is positive behavior support and planning is done. Under no circumstances the illegal or inappropriate behavior is tolerated such as Verbal abuse of staff and others, Verbal abuse of young people, Physical abuse or attack on staff, Damage to property, Alcohol consumptions, and Sexual assaults. I find it effective as a part of the induction of the staff, that they must receive training which is relevant to their roles at a suitable level to make sure that behavioral control is well managed.
4.7 Evaluate the importance of functional analysis in effective person-centred behavioural intervention for individuals.
The importance of functional analysis can be done in terms of identifying systematic investigation of relationships between problem behavior and environmental events. The purpose is to identify variables, which are generating hypotheses about the functions. It is identified as an alternative to the management of agitation and aggression (camhsnorthderbyshire.nhs.uk, 2021). By performing functional analysis of behavior identification of any challenging behavior is done with the analysis of data collected. The ethical issues present in this situation are also analyzed. I have found out that the person-centered behavior support plan focuses on the individual needs of the person. Building a person's strengths and increasing the opportunity to participate in community activities and life skills are done for PBS intervention management. Functional analysis in my opinion focuses on antecedent, skill training, consequence strategies, and long-term prevention strategies. Understanding the key elements are associated with positive relationship management within students and teachers. Social skills instruction work on designing a routine, implementing silent signals, assigning tasks, and setting expectations
Fundamental steps in the development of a behavior support plan engage in learning new teaching skills, engaging oneself in new skills that are used. Deciding on the behavioral expectations that will be taught, prompted, and monitored for implementing a behavior support plan is focused. I find it effective to make a detailed description of the behavior (Globaldownsyndrome.org, 2021). A summary statement that describes the functionalities of the behavior is focused on thoroughly. The crisis intervention plan is applicable as well for the management of behavioral goals within clarification of objectives and providing direct instructions. Students can also rephrase the lessons to ensure that the plan components are assembled with tier 3 interventions
5.2 Explain the role within Positive Behavioural Support of: • primary prevention strategies • secondary prevention strategies • non aversive reactive strategies. Primary prevention strategies
Primary prevention includes five of the key strategies that work with changing the environment that an individual life to support their needs. Primary prevention includes the avoidance of antecedent events that promote functionally alternative skills to manage the challenging behavior. Improving communications, supporting positive relationships, and enhancing active engagement in meaningful activities have become important in addressing the challenges of people's behavior. Promoting inclusion, equal opportunities, and participation works well with primary prevention. I have found out that it helps in managing triggers that lead to behaviors that challenge. Changing reinforcements maintain behavior challenges and support people in achieving a typical lifestyle.
Secondary prevention strategies
Secondary prevention strategies are associated with supporting people in the identification of the reason they are becoming agitated or stressed. There is an emphasis on calming, redirecting, and problem-solving focused. I find it fitter to focus on the distraction of agitated people at the challenging moment (jjie.org, 2021). Avoiding the need for physical restrictions and interventions are associated with secondary prevention. Secondary prevention strategies focus on preventing behaviors from becoming challenging. It has three elements that rely on Identifying early sign, listening actively and taking action.
The carers themselves are required to stay calm in order to prevent any situation which is going out of control and ensure they are remaining at a safe distance from the individual they need to. Nonaversive reactive strategies
Reactive strategies are not just a treatment plan, it prevents individuals from presenting behavior that is unacceptable in society. I find that reactive strategies are quite safe and they are ethical. It is one of the recognizable responses that come to action while any challenging behavior takes place. The components include Self-protecting and being minimal restraint, giving required medication and increasing personal space and Doing functional analysis and participating in breakaway procedures.
5.3 6.3 6.6 Explain the importance of social validity in the Positive Behavioural Support model, and the importance of effective communication and positive interaction in primary prevention for individuals. Evaluate the social validity of an agreed primary prevention strategy for an individual you support.
Importance of social validity in the Positive Behavioral Support model
Social validation aims not to gather any false praise for a program that is going to be conducted on health-related programs. Useful information is gained about possible holes in the program that works essentially with the future success of the program. Implementation problems are also focused on as a part of social validity in PBS. Social validity in my opinion is identified as a subjective measure that is important whether the changes produced are making acceptable behavioral changes and increasing a person's efficiency or not. Choosing a process of interacting with a person is also important so that the sustainability of human behavior is promoted.
Importance of effective communication and positive interaction in primary prevention for individuals
Effective communication is important for individuals since communication helps individuals to survive in a world where conveying messages to another person is done. If a person is not attracted to someone then they will not be able to get the feelings across. “Effective communication not only improves care services but also creates a better working environment for cares (ncld.org, 2021)". There is a creation of transparency and openness observed that relates to daily tasks and requirements. With effective communication, any negative situation can be foreseen and better relationships can be created with students. I find it effective in better decision-making and planning of primary prevention strategy development on individual behavioral challenges.
Evaluating the social validity of an agreed primary prevention strategy
I have researched the fact that most systematic measures of social validity are inclusive of a rating scale. The scales are intervention rating profiles and there is also an application of questionnaires observed. The measurement scale is associated directly with the behaviors of the problematic children. Social validity of agreed primary prevention strategies includes the following aspect as: “(1) the social significance of the goals of treatment; (2) the social appropriateness of the treatment procedures; and (3) the social importance of the effects of treatments. (ncld.org, 2021)”
6.2 Explain processes you follow to implement an agreed primary prevention strategy using least restrictive practice, respecting the individual’s dignity, rights and choice.
Restrictive practices are those which stop a person from doing some acts. I prefer least restrictive practices as in the least restrictive practice a person is found out to be residing under an appropriate care model that will ensure that a person is enabled to maintain autonomy. It enhances an older person's autonomy and respects their rights, dignity, and privacy. Keeping the individual worth of a person intact is done within this process (simplypsychology.org, 2021). It has become essential to understand the working plan and what needs to be put into the right place. This model also helps in the development of a child's IEP. The way services are provided is essentially understood so that the restrictive practices are indulged upon on the movement of persons with disability. As an individual, the rights and choices to be cared for should be preserved. Agreed primary intervention strategy will include least restrictive approach in a certain way as:
Functional analysis: Clear definition of the reasons that present a behavioral challenge focuses on health and communication needs to manage the strengths and preferences. PBS plan: Specifying that social care workers should be patient enough to take control of any situation and work in the role play
Practice leadership: Team leaders of any care group need to be skilled enough to support individuals so that each person is working as a role model and applying the least restrictive practices. Giving the working people regularized feedback on how well they are carrying out the PBS plan encourages the use of a more agreed primary intervention strategy (simplypsychology.org, 2021).
As agreed primary prevention, I have come across the fact that kids should be given training on controlling their impulses and managing any chronic pain and ongoing frustrations associated with their disability both in physical and mental state. I found out that kids with continuous nagging problems become less patient and they should be treated with distraction than to become calm
9.1 9.2 Describe the key characteristics and types of reactive strategies. Explain with examples, when reactive strategies should be used with individuals.
Reactive strategies might have different forms. It includes “Environmental, psychological and restrictive interventions such as physical holds, mechanical and manual restraint, seclusion and 'time out' or the use of emergency medication” (simplypsychology.org, 2021). In the case of autism, the best possible option is to include destruction and reducing expectations. Keeping people safe and bringing things back to calm to the earliest. Responding to challenging behavior is person-centered and focuses on people's mental health to avoid physical restriction and interventions. Reactive strategies highly focus on the development of social attention and engage
in a certain behavior to manage reinforcements. Sensory stimulation is also another aspect of problem-solving and avoiding the need for physical restriction and interventions. Molecular and moral behavior is an unexpected behavior that occurs without thinking and needs special care. I did ensure with my students on reactive strategies which were planned and delivered depending on ethical understanding. I try to follow the NICE guidelines on violence and aggression on the use of safe restrictive interventions.
The proactive interventions include a complete breakdown arrangement of living life to the fullest. When risks are approaching towards a student with a disability and mental breakdown is inevitable then it is very likely to consider reactive strategies to get the situation stabilized. “Proactive strategies should be used before challenging behaviors to occur" (jjie.org, 2021). Reactive strategies usually do not achieve any long-term behavior change. Person-centered planning and social setting encouragement managed the risks that are upcoming on children. In case a child is going out of control and the situation is becoming a threat, then to maintain the safety of the person and other reactive strategies should be imposed upon. Revising the activity scheduled in enhancing predictability is important. Engaging the students with challenging behavior in mindful activities can be important for behavioral management.
7.1 9.7 Explain how you use ‘Active’ Support to help prevent challenging behaviour by improving an individual’s quality of life. Identify own preferred post-incident support.
Active support is seen to be providing conditions in which challenging behavior decreases and improves the quality of people's life. Self-gained confidence, experience generation, and control are associated with active support on empowering people with a disability to do things for themselves whenever it is possible. Rather than a support staff doing work on the disabled person's behalf is important. Scope for abuse is reduced and people are seen to be less prone to exploitation with promoting active support for individuals. Taking an active part in day-to-day activities along with participating in work in different areas of their life is impacted. Decreasing vulnerability improves gaining self-confidence and self-esteem. Active support is associated with being attentive and initiating some positive self-talk. I find it effective to recognize the limits and maintain rational detachment. Individual engagement positively supports the personal care caring for self without any other people's help.
Post-incident support is an integral part of the department's health and proactive care. This is identified as one of the most important safeguarding approaches that aim to reduce aggression and violence. Providing practical and emotional support to people past an incident helps in managing traumatic events and reduces further risks of falling prey to any mental breakdown incidents. I experienced a major incident when one of the students became uncontrollable and raged. This student was triggered by bullying and body shaming (jjie.org, 2021). The skin color and race were bullied multiple times by the student which made him enraged. It has led to breaking furniture hitting each other and even biting the teaching staff. I had begun the reactive strategy by distracting the kid. This kid loved to play tennis and I had organized a tennis match on an immediate basis to make sure that the kid gets distracted and invests his mind into the match for post-incident support.
7.2 Explain how you use ‘Active’ Support to help prevent challenging behaviour by improving an individual’s quality of life. Identify own preferred post-incident support.
improving an individual’s quality of life. Identify own preferred post-incident support. It is one of the most important roles to play in primary care by expanding, connecting, and coordinating care. Thorough modeling, training, and work have been placed to provide safe and effective care in disease prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation. Primary prevention might help in preventing an injury before it occurs and prevention of exposure to hazards that cause unsafe behaviors. I found out that it worked in an institutional setting that solved difficult institutional problems of devaluing people and a certain community. The strategies which are essential in preventing and controlling challenging behaviors are associated with changing settings, practicing consistency in the classroom, giving the students a lesson on alternative behaviors, facilitating student engagement, responding to each situation in a calm and composed attitude. Practicing consistency in the classroom is also important to reduce the challenges of behavior. Most importantly teachers need to encourage communication so that the students can express themselves freely. Opening up the barriers of communication might lead to the prevention of behavioral challenges.
I play the role of a teacher and work both as an individual and group member to increase relationships using clinical interventions. I play the role of a teacher as well as a guide that gives support to children in difficult situations. Turning the negatives into positives and teaching positive behavior to students is going to help their future shaping (ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2021). I try to have interaction with all students specifically with the pens that are having a learning difficulty. This interaction method is identified to be effective by behavioral theorists. The humanistic perspective will be used in this case to make sure that students are guided appropriately. In support of my technique, I can explain the social cognitive theory which supports the social learning occurring in a social context. Active learning in a social context helps in behavioral development.
8.2 10.1 Explain when you have used secondary prevention strategies with individuals and the purpose and importance of Positive Behaviour Support Plans for individuals.
Secondary prevention largely works in support of those who are at higher risks of experiencing mental health threats. This occurs majorly due to the characteristics of an individual who is born with such experiences. Secondary prevention strategy works by developing social, behavioral, emotional, and physical disorders. Screening is done by me by taking regular mind tests to observe children and detect any form of discrepancy in their behavior. The secondary prevention has worked in favor of me as one of the students who became out of control could be controlled with the handling of calm and positive nature. Engagement is done within parents for managing positive communication opportunities and encouraging advanced learners. The best possible prevention that I did is setting a behavioral expectation standard and promoting positive behavior. The prevention could be better applied if enough is given to the transition. Known risk factors have helped in the management of social, emotional, and physical barriers (ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2021). The purpose of using a secondary method is to create a proper prevention strategy and avoid any uncertain situation. Social and economic determinants on health help in the provisioning of information on behavioral and medical health risks which is improvised through this process. I found out that it worked in an institutional setting that solved difficult institutional problems of devaluing people and a certain community,
Positive behavior support plans are important since they include support to the quality of life. Supporting networks work on regulating the care and behavioral aspects. Positive outcomes are associated with participation within community building. Behavior support plans help in teaching new skills and responding to the components where it is necessary. Certain reason includes the following options such as Specific behavioral improvements, Positive outcome management for participating in the community, supporting network to provide regular care and Stopping any mental trauma from outside to secure them ineffective environmental changes
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