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The cluster random assignment is referred to the experimental technique which is used for recruiting human participants or other subjects in an experiment in separate groups known as clusters (Ampt et al., 2019). This is preferred to be used over individual random assignment because it allows requirement of fewer resources for the assignment process compared to the individual assignment, in turn, allowing it to be a cost-effective technique to be applied in the study. Moreover, it is feasible as the division of the population are done into homogenous groups allowing less confusion to occur in managing participants in the study. Since this assignment process allows representation of the entire population in group, it helps more subjects to be effectively included in the study (Taljaard et al., 2020).
One of the ethical issues raised with assignment of participants in the control group is regarding placebo. This means that while a subject is recruited to a control group it is the duty of the researcher to ensure that the person belief they are receiving a treatment even though they are not receiving any treatment in real. The act is deceptive as participants are made to provide consent in the study under the information that they are receiving a treatment in real (Nardini, 2014). The other ethical issue raised in control group assignment is that often subjects are tricked by promising a cure or by deliberatively concealing from them that are taking part in a study which is deceptive (Nardini, 2014). The randomisation and blinding in recruitment of participants in the control group may cause harm towards as they are being denied the best care, in turn, raising ethical concern of nonbeneficence in the study (Nardini, 2014).
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Independent variable: - It is a variable the experiment modifications or controls and is assumed to have a direct impact on independent variable.
Dependent variable: - It’s a variable is a being tested and measured in an experiment and depended on independent variable.
Researcher is looking for the possible effects on the dependent variable that be caused by changing the independent variable.
A phenomenon in research is referred to the general result which has to be reliably observed in systematic empirical studies. The phenomenons are seen to be manifested in human responses and behaviour in the study. It can originate from affairs in the practical world, personal experience and theoretical discipline. The phenomenon at times in studies is perceived to show a promising opportunity, unsatisfying circumstances, breakdown of expected arrangement or a simple topic of research interest. However, it is mentioned that researcher generally faces four key difficulties in diagnosing and grounding phenomenon in research (Parente et al. 2018).
The leading questions are to be avoided in a study because they lead to gather false or biased answers from the respondents because the respondents in the specific question simplify mimic the words presented by the interviewer instead of giving their own opinion in words (Leggett, 2017). Thus, to get better and enhanced insight into the opinion of the participants the leading questions are to be avoided.
The double-barrelled questions are to be avoided because it leads the participants to provide answer for only one issue in the question even though there are two separate issues that are composing the question. This nature of action leads to inaccuracy in responding by the participants leading to reveal incomplete or biased results in the study (Leggett, 2017).
The mixed-methods approach is the technique of emergent methodology in which systematic mixing of qualitative and quantitative data is done for making a single investigation in the study. One of the key characteristics of mixed-method includes collecting close-ended quantitative information and open-ended qualitative data in the study (Belarmino et al., 2019). It also includes use of rigorous procedure for gathering and analysing appropriate data for each traditional method like ensuring the appropriate size of sample for qualitative and quantitative analysis. The other characteristics of mixed-method approach are coherent or sequential use of qualitative and quantitative components with different samples, framing philosophical model of research for study procedure and integrating qualitative and quantitative data collection along with analysis or discussion in the study (So et al., 2018).
The advantage of questionnaire over interview is that it inexpensive or cost-effective while the later requires increased finances to be executed. This is because questionnaire are often self-administered in which a separate surveyor is not required to be hired as required in performing face-to-face interview, in turn, creating cost-effective way of easily collecting information. The other advantage is that questionnaire allows the researcher to target a huge number of subjects to gather response regarding the study topic whereas in interview only a limited number of subjects can be included for gathering information (Norderval et al., 2019). This is because in questionnaire study the researchers do not require to communicate with each individual for prolonged amount of time making them to include as many as subjects for response through the approach. However, in interview, each individual is to be thoroughly studied and communicated for a prolonged amount of time to gather data which makes it difficult for the researcher to include increased number of individual at a time (Brace, 2018). A large number of subject inclusion as made in the questionnaire is beneficial as it allows enhanced and accurate means of analysing valued to identify potential results which are not able to be accomplished through interview approach (Keay et al., 2018). The advantage of questionnaire over interview is that it allows executing the study within limited amount of time as the researchers do not have to wait for prolonged time to receive answers as seen in interview approach (Keay et al., 2018). Moreover, the questionnaire allows easy visibility and analysis of results as they are mainly present in objective manner which avoids the researcher to spend increased amount of time and descriptive analysis as used in interview to interpret the results in the interview approach (Keay et al., 2018).
The disadvantage of questionnaire over interview is that information gathered through questionnaire may lead the researcher to interpret and understand in a different way other than the perspective of the participant who replied to the question. However, in interview, the researcher does not make differences in understanding and interpreting the results as seen in the questionnaire as they are able to clear any doubts or misconception through direct communication and has the opportunity of develop detailed descriptive information in the process to avoid differences (Willeboordse et al., 2016). The other limitation of using questionnaire over interview is that the researchers are unable to determine the feelings or emotions of the respondents in answering the questions that could create better analysis of the gathered information. This is because in questionnaire approach the researcher has no scope to execute face-to-face interaction with the subjects making them unable to observe body language, facial expression and others of the subjects to understand their emotion and feelings that is able to be executed in the interview approach (Braekman et al., 2018). In questionnaire, some questions may be difficult to understand and wrongly interpreted by the participants to answer them leading to create error in delivering the information. However, in interview, any confusion in the questions asked can be easily resolved helping to avoid creating issue of error in providing information by participants or subjects (Willeboordse et al., 2016). Thus, this aspect acts as the limitation for questionnaire in comparison to interview approach.
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