A Comparative Overview of Computing Technologies



There exists a series of computing related technologies. As stated by Hu et al. (2017, p. 27), modern technology gave rise to grid computing with an ability to manage and organize resources and services that are evenly distributed across different domains of control, supply high quality services, interfaces and utility protocols. In the mentioned technology, such services and resources are evenly distributed by control domains and managed on a local basis. Cluster computing is another type of computing, where different computers are linked together as a single computing unit. The components of the clusters are connected to one another through fast LAN (Local Area Network). Clusters are deployed to improve the existing performance of a single computer. Cluster computing is often laced with problems of management and cost of the resources. Lastly, the traditional computing environment of internet usage, the set is inclusive of servers, switches hubs, routers and policies related to access control. The aspect of security is handled in-house. The infrastructure is onsite in most of the aspects relating to security are left to the administrators from the updates to the backups (Vilalta et al. 2017, p. 25). The problem linked with cost acquiring facilities to meet the existing IT requirement of a business organization, includes the need for security, extra storage space and cost implication related with keeping the the state of art technology. Thus, the need for the current research literature treats cloud computing proffering the possible solutions to overcome the mentioned drawbacks of all other computing related technologies. Thus, as influenced by Chen, Herrera and Hwang (2018, p. 19774), cloud computing is often termed as provision of hardware and software over the internet as third party service provider. Cloud computing provides access to advanced software applications and a high end network of servers. Cloud computing is a high demand computing service offered by Google, Microsoft, Amazon and so on (Quirita et al. 2016, p. 409). It helps computing infrastructure to be used by organizations or an individual anywhere on demand. As stated by Rastogi and Iyer (2019), cloud computing makes computing related activities more scalable and efficient. Organizations or an individual need not spend in acquiring storage related devices if they use cloud computing related services. The mentioned platform is used to develop applications enabling people to make use of services as per their demands


Overview of cloud computing

As stated by Odun-Ayo et al. (2018, p. 5), cloud computing is termed as delivery of computing related services over the internet. Cloud services create a provision for businesses to implement hardware and software managed by third parties at remote locations. The model related to cloud computing allows you to gain access to information and possible resources from anywhere. While the traditional setup of a computer demands the user to be in the same location as in the data storage device, the cloud minimises the hassle. As stated by Wu et al. (2016, p. 2270), the cloud removes the possible hassle of the user to be in the same physical location as the hardware storing the data. However, as per the definition provided by NIST, cloud computing is a model for ensuring convenient access to network on the basis of demand that can be easily provisioned and released with limited management or interaction from the service provider. The chosen model promotes availability and comprises of essential characteristics, deployment models and service models

The concept of cloud

According to Khethavath, Thomas. and Chan-Tin (2017, p. 1152), cloud computing is the process of hosting data that has gained increasing attention. Due to the increasing demand for data and resources, there is a demand for higher storage systems. File systems continue to thrive on a better architecture to facilitate scalability of the system. Cloud computing is seen to provide reliable and high performance services within a dynamic environment. For instance, storage platform for OpenStack cloud computing is solely concentrated about Infrastructure as a service (IaaS), inclusive of Software as a Service (SaaS) and Platform as a service (PaaS)

Comparison of cloud computing with other types of computing

Internet computing

In the traditional computing environment for internet usage, the servers with routers and other devices, connected with one another but are managed in-house. The infrastructure is one site and the aspect related to security is left under the responsibility of local administrator. Cloud computing is often termed as a paradigm different from the personal computers. Users of the cloud need to be concerned about the aspects of cloud computing services and the underlying details of how they are achieved. The method linked with distributed computing is carried out through pooling of the resources managed by software and not a human.

Cluster computing

Computers are linked together in the mentioned technology, working together so that in may respect they form a single computer. As influenced by Chen, Loparo and Li (2017, p. 201), the components of cluster are mostly connected to one another through the use of LAN. Clusters are often used to improve availability of performance of a single computer; while being cost effective than single computers of similar speed. Unlike cloud computing, the devices are maintained by an individual entity

Distributed Computing

A method of computer processing in which various parts of a program are run on two or more than two computers, communicating with one another over a network. Distributed computing is a type of parallel computing, but the latter term is commonly used to refer to the process in which different parts of a single program executes on more than two processors, running on more than two processors on a single computer. As proposed by Lee, Lee and Noh (2018, p. 222), two types of processing demands the program to be segmented to facilitate smooth execution of functions. For instance, two systems are likely to have different hardware and file related components

Utility Computing

Conventional internet hosting related services often provides the capability of quickly arranging for rental individual servers for the accommodating surge in traffic. As stated by Ogino et al. (2018, p. 218), utility computing usually comprises some or the other form of virtualization so that the storage space is considerably larger, as opposed to the single time sharing. The mentioned event is made possible through the use of back end services and may be dedicated computer cluster, aimed at designing out. The technique for running a single calculation on a series of computers is termed as distributed computing.

Cloud computing models

Software as a Service (SaaS): In the mentioned model, a complete application is offered based on the demand. A single instance of the service runs on a cloud. As stated by Jimenez et al. (2018, p. 106), on the customer's side there remains no need for upfront investment in regards to software license and the costs are lower. These days SaaS is offered by companies such as Zoho, Microsoft and so on.

Platform as a Service (PaaS): Makes use of development ambience which is further offered as a service for building quality services. The customer is provided with the flexibility to build personal applications, running on the infrastructure of the provider. In order to meet the requirements pertaining to manageability and scalability, PaaS offers a set of pre-defined amalgamation of operating system enhancing the level of fluidity in their services

Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS): IaaS is seen to provide basic computing capabilities and storage services over a network. As stated by Liu, Fieldsend and Min (2017, p. 25445), storage system, networking equipment, are pooled to bear the workload. The customer is often seen to deploy the current software on the basis of infrastructure

Public, private and hybrid clouds

Enterprises are often seen to implement applications on private, public or hybrid clouds. As stated by Zhang (2018, p. 1), cloud integrators are seen to play an important role in determining the right kind of cloud solution for each organization.

Public Cloud is owned by third parties, delivering superior economies of scale to customers. Kaushik and Gandhi (2019, p. 87), stated that the cost related to infrastructure is spread across a series of users giving individual clients at attractive low costs. The customers are seen to share the same infrastructure with a series of configuration and available variances supported and managed by the cloud provider. One of the prime advantages of public cloud is that they may be larger than the perceived enterprise cloud.

Private Cloud is exclusively built for single enterprises with the prime aim to address the concern over data security, while offering greater levels of control, typically lacking in the domain of public clouds. As stated by Bouchaala et al. (2017, p. 303), there are two types of private cloud. On-premise Private Cloud:, a model, providing a systematic process of protection, with limited scalability and size. This is best suited for application demanding complete configurability and control in terms of security and This is best suited for applications which require complete control and configurability of the infrastructure and security

Externally hosted Private Cloud is a cloud where provider facilitates exclusive cloud related environment with full trust of privacy. The mentioned model is dubbed as of prime importance for organizations that do not prefer public cloud due to sharing of physical resources

Hybrid Clouds are an amalgamation of private and public cloud models where the service providers can use third party resources while enhancing the level of flexibility within computing. As stated by Huang, Lu and Choo (2017, p. 106), the capability to augment public resources with private cloud for managing unexpected surges in work

Cloud Computing Implementation Architecture

As per the study conducted by Ai,Peng and Zhang (2019, p. 77), the storage platform linked with Open stack cloud computing is associated with IaaS. In similar terms, it can be easily stated architectures related to cloud computing tend to rely on resources that are exposed to the user on an on-demand basis. These resources are inclusive of persistent storage and exists in varying capability

Cloud Computing Implementation Architecture

Characteristics of cloud computing

Characteristics of cloud computing are inclusive of on-demand network access, pooling of resources and self service. The on demand self service is comprised of facilities within which the customers can manage and request their own computing related resources. A broad network access allows services to be offered over the private networks. As stated by Azimi et al. (2017, p. 15), pooled resources mean that the customers are able to draw from a series of computing resources taken from remote data sources. Services can be scaled smaller or larger and the use of services is billed as per customers.

Application of cloud computing

Cloud computing is often implemented to deliver applications down the system through events such as resource viewing, sharing of data and manipulation. As stated by Popescu et al. (2018, p. 40), staple desktop applications could exist similar applications in cloud computing. Bur the variety remains in the terms of the way of interaction. The most common is the way of database and storage and the research literature would discuss cloud storage systems.

Cloud Storage System


The database is termed as a source of information with suitable links that can make the data easily available. As pointed out by Chen, Herrera and Hwang (2018, p. 19774), distributed databases are seen to spread information among the hardware which is physically distributed. However, to the client, the information seems to be concentrated at one place. The advantage associated with cloud database can be termed as follows:

Improvement in resource availability: As stated by Huang, Lu and Choo (2017, p. 106), if there exists a fault in a single database system, it will impact a single fragment of the whole information and not the database

Improvement in performance: Data is often located as per the basis of demand, while the systems are parallelised allowing the load to be equally distributed among the servers

Price: It is highly cost effective to establish a network of several small computers with the power of one large server. The greatest advantage is the flexibility, within which the system can be modified or changed without any possible harm to the database and this process is relatively easier to implement


The primary distinction in distributed computing and Internet computing is how they are overseen. In a cloud setting, the framework is set up and kept up by an outsider, implying that an organization or association keeps information, runs projects and administrations on servers that are not claimed and kept up by their own representatives. In Internet computing, it is overseen by representatives of the organization and there is typically a Data Technology division comprising of Framework heads, experts, and system masters. This distinction is one of the fundamental worries in distributed computing today, which cloud processing wishes to address. It is hence qualified to note that Cloud Computing is a term that doesn't depict a solitary thing – rather it is a general term that sits over an assortment of administrations from Infrastructure as a Service at the base, through Platform as a Administration as an improvement device and through Software as a Service supplanting on-premise applications. This paper in any case, in clear terms, has had the option to clarify what this framework is about, the foundations included and furthermore contrasted it and other figuring stages.

As expressed by Bouchaala et al. (2017, p. 303), distributed computing is named as conveyance of figuring related administrations over the web. Cloud administrations make an arrangement for organizations to execute equipment and programming supervised by outsiders in remote areas. The model identified with distributed computing permits you to access data and potential assets from anyplace. While the customary arrangement of a PC requests the client to be in a similar area as in the information stockpiling gadget, the cloud limits the issue. As expressed by Hu et al. (2017, p. 27), the cloud expels the conceivable issue of the client to be in a similar physical area as the equipment putting away the information. Notwithstanding, according to the definition given by NIST, distributed computing is a model for guaranteeing advantageous access to arrange based on request that can be effectively provisioned and discharged with restricted administration or the connection from the specialized organization.

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For associations trying to move to Cloud Computing, it is imperative to comprehend the various parts of Cloud Computing and to evaluate their own circumstance and choose which kinds of arrangements are fitting for their remarkable needs. It is hence relevant to take note of that Cloud Computing is a quickly quickening transformation inside IT and will before long become the default technique for IT conveyance associations are encouraged to think about their methodology towards starting a transition to the Clouds sooner, as opposed to later. The aspect of cost may emerge as a potential hindrance for companies willing to make implementation of cloud computing related facilities. However, it can be additionally concluded that with emerging demand of the cloud computing related services, more and more service providers would emerge reducing the costs and removing the potential technical barriers.

Reference list

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Azimi, I., Anzanpour, A., Rahmani, A.M., Pahikkala, T., Levorato, M., Liljeberg, P. and Dutt, N., 2017. HiCH: Hierarchical fog-assisted computing architecture for healthcare IoT. ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems (TECS), 16(5s), pp.1-20.

Bouchaala, M., Ghazel, C., Saidane, L.A. and Kamoun, F., 2017, October. End to end cloud computing architecture based on a novel classification of security issues. In 2017 IEEE/ACS 14th International Conference on Computer Systems and Applications (AICCSA) (pp. 303-310). IEEE.

Chen, M., Herrera, F. and Hwang, K., 2018. Cognitive computing: architecture, technologies and intelligent applications. IEEE Access, 6, pp.19774-19783.

Chen, X., Ji, J., Loparo, K. and Li, P., 2017, February. Real-time personalized cardiac arrhythmia detection and diagnosis: A cloud computing architecture. In 2017 IEEE EMBS International Conference on Biomedical & Health Informatics (BHI) (pp. 201-204). IEEE.

Hu, P., Dhelim, S., Ning, H. and Qiu, T., 2017. Survey on fog computing: architecture, key technologies, applications and open issues. Journal of network and computer applications, 98, pp.27-42.

Huang, C., Lu, R. and Choo, K.K.R., 2017. Vehicular fog computing: architecture, use case, and security and forensic challenges. IEEE Communications Magazine, 55(11), pp.105-111.

Jimenez, J.M., Diaz, J.R., Lloret, J. and Romero, O., 2018. MHCP: Multimedia hybrid cloud computing protocol and architecture for mobile devices. IEEE Network, 33(1), pp.106-112.

Kaushik, S. and Gandhi, C., 2019. Fog vs. Cloud Computing Architecture. In Advancing Consumer-Centric Fog Computing Architectures (pp. 87-110). IGI Global.

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