Smart Home System for Lighting Circuits


Home automation is emerging as one of the most significant platforms developers use in the course of developing the smart homes. The home automation system is essentially engaged in controlling the lighting system, home appliances, the entertainment systems and the climate at the same time. Currently, attention is believed to have been channeled towards connection of the sensors to the lighting circuits while taking note of the hardware and the advantageous use of the internet technology. Based on this, a number of studies have made an attempt of linking the smart homes to Internet of Things and the relevant devices. Based on the observations made by Domb (2019), most of the smart home systems are believed to have attained significant popularity over the last few decades as far as the comfort, as well as the quality of life is put into consideration. Most of the smart home systems are essentially controlled by the microcontrollers and smartphones. Domb (2019) believes that classic smart homes have attracted the attention of cloud computing, internet of things and the rule-based event processing, which are equally regarded as the fundamental building blocks of the home integrated compound. Apparently, IoT serves a great deal to the remote management of the mobile appliances as well as internet connection, which is believed to take the advantageous use of a range of sensors. This means that sensors may essentially be linked to most of the home related appliances as it is with the case of lights, environmental devices and air conditioning among others.


Smart homes are equally known for embedding the computer intelligence across most of the home devices for the purposes of facilitating means of measuring the home conditions, in the course of monitoring most of the home appliances. Satapathy et al. (2018) further took note of the contributions from cloud computing, the cloud applications, home services and the essence of the monitoring functionality in the smart home. Combination of technologies would always aid the generation of the best breed of the product while making an effort of utilizing the IoT in the home systems. Satapathy et al. (2018) also observed the fact that internet is becoming one of the most element of the human’s social life as well as the educational life. A range of the IoT devices do not only control but also take the monitoring role of the electrical, electronic as well as mechanical systems. The devices would be connected to the significant cloud server, which is fundamentally controlled by one user. On the basis of the observations made by Ainane et al. (2019), the smart home industry has consistently been called upon to satisfy a range of criteria even before consumers would have a look at the products. The first condition is that the industry needs to develop robust and relevant solutions said to address the real user needs (Xue et al. 2018). The second condition revolves around the fact that solutions need to operate at three significant levels, which include the context specific systems, the generic technologies and lastly, the functionality.

The latter is accompanied with maintainability, affordability, adaptability and reliability among others. While exploring the concept of a Adaptive House in the University of Colorado, the house experiment checked on the conditions and programs behind the automation process. In the experiment, the prototype system is essentially installed for the purposes of regulating the lighting, room temperature, ventilation and the water heat. The smart home would essentially be facilitated with necessary sensors for the purposes of monitoring the light levels, temperature, the windows and even the sound. Based on the observations made by Ainane et al. (2019), the system would largely monitor the necessary actions said to have been taken by the occupants before turning on particular configuration of the lights, or even taking note of the patterns within the controlled environment. However, there are still research gap areas that need more attention. One of such gap areas include the measurement of energy consumption especially in the lighting system in the light of the use of cloud computing.

Problem Statement

Most of the studies in the background section have placed their focus on the use of smart homes and the application of the IoT devices. However, rare studies have focused on examining the energy consumption, which can be determined via the environmental impact as well as usage. Perhaps, attention needs to be given to the amount of power that would be consumed on the load side attached to the electrical circuit. At the time when the load demands more energy, which is higher than what can be provided for, then this becomes an issue that would lead to blackouts and load shielding. To solve such a problem, it is important to experiment on a simple lighting system while taking note of the energy consumption.


The major aim of this research is to develop a smart home system that would have the light sensors and the appliances connected to the cloud in only a single hub


In support of the research aim stated above, the research finds it necessary to have the following objectives:

To develop a system that has home functions linked to the cloud servers in one hub

The examine the purpose of the hub in the system

To establish the essence accuracy in the smart home system


The scope of the project invests heavily in the exploration of the home appliances and the way they are controlled over the given internet. This would be linked to the understanding of sensors and how they manage in retrieving data from the immediate environment. Further attention is given to ESP8266 with the software development lifecycle (SDLC) providing a roadmap to the development of the system.

Dissertation Overview

The dissertation has an introduction, which outlines the idea while the literature review takes note of the way other studies contribute to the main topic. The methodological section takes advantage of the SDLC while development and design focuses on the outcome of the project.


A study of the smart home systems for the lighting circuits prompts a review of the significant sources said to have information that is almost related. This chapter finds it necessary to conduct a literature review, which is denoted as a significant survey of the necessary scholarly sources that could be linked to the research question under the study. More attention is given to the methodological contributions and the theoretical findings said to find root in the research topic to be covered. The findings on the following areas were found relevant to the research topic.

Smart Home systems

The study of smart home system is extensive and requires more attention than any other areas of technology. According to the study conducted by Domb (2019), the scope of a classic smart home takes into account the rule-based event processing, cloud computing and the internet of things, which constitutes the fundamental building blocks to a better smart home system. Every component of the smart home system comprises of the fundamental attributes as well as the appropriate technologies. For instance, the IoT influences both the internet connection as well as the remote management of the necessary mobile appliances. Domb (2019) still believes that the application of sensors in IoT is unavoidable. Most of the sensors are essentially attached to the home related appliances as it is the case with the lights, environmental devices and air-conditioners among others. With the help of IoT, Hsu et al. (2017) believe that computer intelligence would easily be embedded into most of the home devices as one way of measuring the home conditions, as well as monitor the home appliances as far as the functionality side is put into consideration. Besides, cloud computing remains scalable in the provision of the computing power, applications, the storage space and the home services, which are essentially tapped from most of the home devices.

In the sense of staging a smart home, Hsu et al. (2017) noted that the scope should satisfy the needed efficiency in terms of energy, security, convenience and the low operating costs. Therefore, the smart home system should equally be adjustable and adaptive for the purposes of addressing the changing needs across the home residents. The most basic architecture puts its focus on the measurement of the home conditions, utility of the microcontroller-based sensors and monitoring a range of the home embedded devices. Li et al. (2018) equally believes that most of the researchers have been engaged in the development of a range of the technologies, which are said to have the objective of enhancing the efficiency of the smart homes. Some of the notable developments include home automation, wearable devices, home automation, Internet of Things and Intelligent Control. The significant functions of the remote control attached to the home appliances, indoor condition monitoring and smart energy management would still find application in the provision of a safer environment to the home residents. Li et al. (2018) still noted that a smart home system can easily integrate the multi-sensor data fusion technology, the artificial intelligence and the wearable intelligent technology.

The integration is believed to take a good control of the household appliances by making use of the remote application with the help of the inertial-sensing-based gesture recognition, the indoor environment, as well as the indoor positioning algorithm. In an ideal smart home system, attention can be directed to a number of modules which may not be limited to the home safety, smart energy management and the automated household appliance. The most convenient architecture would take into account the information processing module, the decision making module, and wearable inertia sensing module, the household appliances plant and intelligence monitoring Interface. It is worth noting that the wearable inertial sensing module becomes more applicable when it comes to the significant detection of the motion signals, which are essentially generated either by the foot and hand movements. On the other hand, multisensory circuit module would pertinently integrate the CO sensors as well as the temperature sensors needed in facilitating the home safety. On the other hand, information processing module is in charge of connecting the RF wireless receiver with the help of the SPI interface for the purposes of collecting the necessary motion signals, which need to be measured.

Most of the decision making modules are fundamentally used in the development of the 3D gesture recognition algorithm. Besides, household appliances plant remains fundamental in terms of tapping into the decision commands, which are more applicable in either turning on or off either the lights or the TV. Some of the uses are extended to the functions of the air conditioner. Li et al. (2018) equally noted that smart home systems would still make the fundamental use of the smart community support approaches and technologies. This can be realized in the property security services and the utilities information services. Most of the end users would be more interested in accessing significant information and construct a significant flow of the communication in the course of providing necessary services, as far as the smart home systems are put into consideration.

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The link between home functions and cloud servers

The study of smart home systems essentially fronts the idea of cloud servers. According to the findings by Korkmaz et al. (2015), there has been a significant research on home automation systems, the home functions and the cloud technology. Following the expansion of the home automation applications, it is believed that the cloud infrastructure is emerging as the appropriate platform for the smart home systems. The platform enhances accessibility to the shared pool of the necessary configurable computing storages and devices at the same time. Korkmaz et al. (2015) further established that there are three significant service models with Software as a service (SaaS) said to be applicable to most of the web based applications, which include the Google Cloud. On the other hand, Platform as a Service (PaaS) takes into account the application development, which can be noticed with the Google App Engine. In addition, Infrastructure as a service focuses on the storage resources and the underlying computing platform. Most of the researchers are said to have focused on a range of the studies that insist on the integration of cloud computing across home automation for the purposes of processing as well as analyzing significant amounts, or volumes of the data generated with the help of the sensors. Other studies have emphasized on the cloud based framework and how it is used in the smart homes. The same attention is given to the cloud based monitoring framework, which has seen the implementation of the remote monitoring services.

The process entails the application of the networking cloud known as Pachube for the purposes of supporting a real-time data infrastructure. This paves way for the appropriate management of the data points tapped from the companies, organizations and even individuals with the help of the internet. According to Katuk et al. (2018), cloud services in home automation can be noted in the Machine-To-Machine Communication, which is largely regarded as the carrier cloud. The M2M service cloud is regarded as the cutting edge technology that would serve the next generation communications. The technology would serve as part of the synergies that would influence the next course of the intelligent pervasive applications. The presentation of the M2M service platform in support of the communication carriers is said to create a new platform for the new infrastructure business attached to the carrier cloud. The M2M service cloud is largely thought to play the key role of the home gateway with every device networking attained through the communication carrier network. It is worth noting that both flexibility and virtualization are advantageous in the sense that the server is able to handle a good range of the processes. Based on the findings established by Katuk et al. (2018), the connection between the cloud servers and the smart home functions is that the cloud platform enables most of the users to both monitor as well as control most of the smart electrical appliances remotely with the help of the internet connections.

For instance, the LG’s cloud center is believed to facilitate an application that gives room to users to provide a check as well as view significant contents in the refrigerator either remotely or from home. Another case is that of the lighting system or the lighting circuits said to be supplied by the Phillips Lighting. The lighting system takes the advantageous use of the Google Cloud Platform for the purposes of enabling users to facilitate a change in the home lighting styles in a number of modes. Such changes are said to facilitate better comfort when compared to the ordinary lights. The system equally works alongside the nest security system, which is more capable of establishing a detection platform for any kind of the human movements with the help of the surveillance cameras, which are installed on the exterior side of the residential homes. Based on the observations made by Soliman et al. (2013), it remains evident that the smart home system carries with it the potential for the users to conduct measurements on the home conditions.

Some of the conditions include luminosity, temperature and humidity. Users are still granted the opportunity of manipulating the home HVAC appliances with the central of monitoring and controlling their status. Soliman et al. (2013) equally noted that the home concept captures the fundamental use of the Simple Object Success Protocol and the Web Services Description Language. The two platforms are said to enable the remote access of the home information with the help of the mobile devices. In this sense, some of the suggested home systems include the Smart Home Energy Management System (SHEMS). Such a system would take the advantageous use of such technologies like ZigBee and IEEE802.15.4. The SHEMS-based management system gives room for light control application as well as multi-sensing thereby attracting a reduction in the total energy cost. It is worth noting that a good smart home system should carry with it the system architecture which needs to address the necessary requirements attached to the measurements of the home conditions, monitoring the home appliances and processing the instrumented data. Such a system would call for the use of the microcontroller-enabled sensors for the purposes of determining home conditions.

The SaaS or the PaaS extends the cloud computing services for the purposes of enabling the processing of data. The system architecture for an ideal smart home, according to Sethi and Sarangi (2017), should carry with it the microcontroller enabled sensors, which are engaged in the measurement of the home conditions before interpreting as well as processing the instrumented data. On the other hand, the microcontroller enabled actuators would end up receiving commands that would be transferred by the engaged microcontroller for the purposes of performing significant functions or actions. Such commands would be issued on the basis of the interaction between the cloud services and the microcontroller. On the basis of the design established by Sethi and Sarangi (2017), developers would still require the database or the data store, which plays a focal role in terms of storing data from cloud services and the microcontroller enabled sensors before providing way for both analysis and visualization.

The purpose of the single hub or gateway in the smart home system

In most of the smart home systems, the internet connections have introduced the key role of the gateway or the single hub in the system. According to the studies conducted by Georgiev and Schlögl (2018), a hub and a gateway in networking can be used interchangeably. By definition, a hub in networking is simply a device which is said to help the rest of the devices in a network to talk to each other. A hub in the network allows one to control the devices from the single application. On the other hand, a gateway in the computer network forms the key stopping point for the flow of data. The key role of the gateway revolves around provision of the networking hardware which gives way for flow of data from one discrete network to the other one. Notable examples of the home automation hubs include the Wink Hub 2, which is largely regarded as one of the most versatile hubs. It is known for supporting the Lutron Clear Connect, the Bluetooth Low Energy, as well as the Kidde Wireless Protocol. The hub equally supports the IFTTT applets and the Alexa voice commands, which are known for controlling the smart devices from a range of the manufacturers that include Ring, Nest, Honeywell, General Electric and Ecobee among others.

On the other hand, Samsung SmartThings Hub is dubbed as the multi-protocol controller because it carries with the ZigBee radios, Bluetooth and Z-wave. With this collection in place, the hub is able to control a range of the smart devices from a range of the companies. Mohammadi et al. (2018) noted that smart hubs are gaining attention over the years due to the most appealing features or characteristics. The core features of a hub in the smart home system include the single app control, which takes care of the security systems; manage the lighting systems, the entertainment networks, the thermostats and the garage door openers. Second, a good hub need to be security enabled, which takes into account the significant integration of the robust security systems found necessary in simplifying control. A hub would equally have a simplified installation as it is the case with the Z-wave based products that carry with them the mobile app and the WIFI capability. A hub would equally have the user interface with the intuitive mobile app being able to work with a range of the ecosystems. Finally, a good have always has the remote access and therefore allow most of the users to make access to the system through the connected devices even while being far away from home.

Alongside the studies around the smart home hub, Phan and Kim (2020) believe that it is also important to focus on the purpose of staging a gateway at the center of the home automation system. A gateway, similar to the hub, has to understand or know all the necessary functions and information regarding the smart devices within the home system. The needful information constitutes the device profile, which as such information like the model name, the manufacturer, the functions and how the device is controlled. The introduction of the device profile handler is said to be in a capacity of downloading as well as updating the device profile every moment or time a fresh devices is linked to the gateway. Phan and Kim (2020) further made significant observations over the smart home gateway. A number of studies have emphasized on such aspects that include the security of the system, the application services, architecture and the communication protocol. The OSGI-Based architecture finds a significant place in the development of the smart home gateways, which have the capacity of supporting the heterogeneous networks. Some of the developers have gone ahead proposing a comprehensive software architecture which would be engaged in support of the seamless integration of the necessary services and devices, which provide an access to the home functions in the smart homes.

However, in most of the hubs or the gateways, compatibility is the main problem that developers would encounter in the process. It is worth noting that a range of the home gateway solutions in the modern market take closed ecosystem. However, in the course of providing the solutions, systems encounter issues with device compatibility. It is worth noting that most of the modern smart home systems may carry with them separate device types which may cover the home appliances, security devices, lighting systems, sensors and even switches. Each mentioned device largely has its own features as well as purposes. When there are varying purposes of devices in a system, compatibility in the gateway or hub becomes an issue. This is due to the fact that most of the smart home devices are usually resource-constrained devices, which are essentially limited by the power resources, the system memory and the CPU. Due to the mentioned characteristics, most of these devices are required to make use of the low power communication protocols as it is the case with the Threat, Bluetooth Low Energy, ZigBee and Z-Wave among others. In this context, the functionalities of the device would be defined within the protocols with developers forced to observe all the protocol specifications while creating applications. The compatibility issue, if not well addressed, would lead to configuration issues at the hub or gateway with devices failing to communicate with one another.

Light Circuit in a Smart Home System

In the design of the light control circuit for a smart home system, it is necessary for one to check on the necessary conditions to be factored, and the kind of approaches that can be used. Budianto et al. (2018) established the fact that the approach to be used in the process of designing the light control circuit should equally check on the optimal control of the communication process of all equipment available in the smart home. Most[ of the supervisory control models focus more on the renewable energy systems as well as the evolutionary algorithms applied in establishing the optimal settings. However, the min-max optimization approach remains appropriate in overcoming the demand of the response problems noted during the peak load conditions. Based on the observations made by Budianto et al. (2018), controlling the lighting system is considered to be a critical process as a result of the significant check on the efficiency behind consumption of electricity. In most of the applications, turning the lights on and off takes advantage of the conventional switch. However, the switches are sometimes ineffective and therefore needs the attention of the smart home devices.

Light control across the smart home system is said to be computer aided, which means that the process is programmed and automatic at the same time. The remote monitoring technology has been recommended by most of the developers as far as provision of the real time monitoring process is put into consideration. The light circuit control takes into account the system architecture, which constitutes the sensors known to regulate the illumination of the lamps or the light bulbs (Zhang and Li 2014). The system architecture attached to the lighting system is created through the Android mobile services and the server computer. The control board system remains fundamental in terms of defining the components that would be found in an ideal lighting circuit. Notably, the hardware side of the system is fundamentally contained in the mobile phone, the LDR, Arduino microcontroller, Triac, sensors and the dimmer among other components. Arduino Uno is notably an ATmega328 based microcontroller. The board characteristically has the 16MHz crystal oscillator, the 6 analog inputs and the 14 digital input-output pins. At the same time, the sensor system is essentially applicable in the detection of the environmental condition (Budianto et al. 2018). In a scenario where the Triac is applicable, the component would be regarded as the semiconductor that carries with it the four significant layers of the PNPN diode.

Apart from the hardware side of the light circuit, the circuit still has to integrate the client server. In essence, a web server is more applicable in bridging the user as well as the microcontroller. When a command is entered into the server before it can be processed back to the active microcontroller, it would end up running the software which eventually accepts the requests. The circuit would still integrate a mobile phone, which would play the role of an interface. Users would be engaged in controlling as well as monitoring the conditions of the regulated lights with the help of the Android mobile devices. Beyond the lighting system, Lee and Lee (2015) insisted that alarm system sensors, occupancy sensors, thermostat control and touch screens cannot be avoided. Additional components that have received significant attention include adaptors, smart bulbs and the smart switches. Significant modules that would be integrated in the light control circuit include the power supply module. The module is said to deliver to around 1.5 watts DC power. The supply can still happen without necessarily having a neutral wire.

With the level of power being supplied, it becomes easier to come up with a sophisticated switch which is constantly in touch with the cameras, sensors and the touch display. The module is essentially denoted as the Power Extractor module, which plays a focal role in delivering AC voltage to the lighting components. The second module is that of the Bulb Adaptor which shares a command shared by the manufacturer’s controller. The last module is that of miniature component, which is essentially integrated in the smart bulb. Datta et al. (2014) also proposed the significant use of the microcontroller PIC 16F73, which can easily be programmed. The microcontroller is characteristically a Reduced Instruction Set Computer. The second component proposed by Datta et al. (2014) for a smart home is the servo motor and a relay would sometimes play the role of a switch that extends power to the appliances. Apart from the views shared by Datta et al. (2014), Zhang and Li (2014) equally believes that the integration of the ZigBee Network Nodes can still be integrated in the light control circuit as it is the case with CC2530 Chip Design. The light intensity meters and the smart sockets would still be used in determining the current signal.

The Essence of Accuracy in the Smart Home System

Notably, while designing the smart home system, accuracy is of essence and critical at the same time. According to Ghaffarianhoseini et al. (2017), designing a better smart home system should first focus on the reduction of the operational costs. The key attention need to be extended to efficient energy management. The evolution of the smart technologies, attached to smart homes, has increasingly taken into account the significant integration of the collective and human-based artificial intelligence. The need for accuracy in the design of the smart homes calls for innovativeness and inclusivity in terms of the borrowed concepts. Based on the observations made by Ghaffarianhoseini et al. (2017), it could be established that an accurate smart home system requires a robust energy control management. Most of the developers take note of the use of embedded computer intelligence for the purposes of optimizing power consumption. Such a system would effectively make use of the remote terminal computers and smart phones.

A more integrated system would effectively make a detection of the supply voltages, and relay information over the power use that is likely to surpass the permissible limits. The same attention need to be extended to the protection of the controllable appliances. A smart home that has the capacity to predict or forecast the energy demands still has the capacity to support the proactive resource management. Researchers have gone ahead proposing the hybrid algorithms and the network based multi-sensing systems. In addition, the demand response system can be more appropriate for the purposes of staging significant insights that would help the performance of the automation applications. Baraka et al. (2013) equally supports the advancement in technologies that are increasingly integrated in smart home systems for the purposes of boosting the accuracy of the entire system. Some of the technologies that have enhanced the efficiency and accuracy of the smart home systems include Internet of Things, Neural Networks and Artificial Intelligence.

Baraka et al. (2013) noted that increased use even the web applications make the smart homes work better. Better tools, hubs and emergence of the cloud computing may only increase the hopes of the developers in making the systems better, effective and more accurate. With more attention given to the highlighted technologies, it is possible that better lighting control circuits can still be developed and even improved for the efficiency of the smart homes.


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