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Climate Change and Insecurities in Sub-Saharan Africa

1. Introduction

1.1. Background of the study

The dissertation is about analysing insecurities in sub Saharan Africa, which is happened due to climate change, where the researcher considers mainly three countries to identify the exact impacts of climate change. Climate change refers to the long term shifts in temperatures and weather patterns, where human activities are considered to be the main driver of climate change, due to burning fossil fuels, including oil, gas and coal which produce heat trapping gases (Lottering, Mafongoya and Lottering, 2021). The major causes of climate change are burning coal, oil and gas, cutting down forests, Fluorinated gases is emitted from equipment and products that use these gases, as well as fertilisers containing nitrogen produce nitrous oxide emissions and increasing farming. Hence, climate change has its significant impacts on the people, where the people are suffering from insecurities, which leads towards deterioration of the livelihood of the individuals. The study focuses on sub Saharan Africa, where the people are suffering from climate change, and it raises insecurities in daily lives. The long-term effects of climate change include further ice melt, ocean warming, sea level rise, and ocean acidification. For students navigating similar issues and seeking guidance in their research journey, access to resources like Environmental Studies Dissertation Help is good at giving the needful data and insights.

The humans and wild animals face new challenges for survival because of climate change in the recent era of globalisation. More frequent and heat waves, intense drought, rising sea levels, storms, melting glaciers and warming oceans directly harm the animals, destroy the places they live, and wreak havoc on people's livelihoods and communities (Lottering, Mafongoya and Lottering, 2021). Hence, there are several impacts of climate change that further raises insecurities in the people’s lives, where they face challenges in managing their standard of living. Climate change hereby threatens the lives and livelihood of billions of people across the sub Saharan Africa. Environmental degradation, extreme weather patterns and natural disasters erode livelihoods and spur infectious diseases, as well as deplete fisheries and disrupt harvest. It is hereby important for the people to identify the insecurities across the sub Saharan Africa countries, which has been happened due to climate change. Through critical analysis and discussion, it would be possible for the people to adopt new strategies for sustainable solutions to tackle the issue of climate change and make the live secure in long run.

1.2 Research aim

The aim of the research is to analyse the existing issue of insecurity due to climate change in the sub-Saharan Africa, where the people cannot stay under security and safety. Through this study, the major countries in sub-Saharan Africa will be evaluated which are, Kenya, Ghana and Nigeria.


1.3 Objectives of the study

To review the existing insecurities in Sub-Saharan Africa due to climate change

To explore the impacts of climate change on the livelihood of the people in Kenya, Ghana and Nigeria

To recommend suitable suggestion for overcoming insecurities in sub-Saharan Africa that is happened due to climate change so that the countries can take initiatives towards sustainable changes to tackle the issue of climate change

1.4 Research questions

What are the existing insecurities in Sub-Saharan Africa due to climate change?

What are the critical impacts of climate change on the livelihood of the people in Kenya, Ghana and Nigeria?

What would be the recommended suggestion for overcoming insecurities in sub-Saharan Africa so that the countries can take initiatives towards sustainable changes to tackle the issue of climate change?

1.5 Rationale of the study

The national security implications of climate change impacts are far- reaching, as this may exacerbate the existing stressors, contributing to poverty, environmental degradation, and political instability, providing enabling environments for terrorist activity abroad. Hence, the people in the sub Saharan African countries are suffering from insecurities in their daily life due to climate change, which deteriorates the standard of living of the individuals in the country. Environmental crises induce forced migration both within and across countries which leads to human insecurities of displaced people through increasing the conflicts of the resources, undermining livelihoods and galvanising other concomitant challenges (Abdulai, 2018). For example, increased heat, drought and insect outbreaks lead to increased wildfires. Additionally, declining the water supplies in the locality, reduced agricultural yields and deteriorating the health condition of the people are some of the effects of climate change in the sub Saharan countries. The people are suffering with such insecurities due to globalisation impacts, where the people cannot access the natural resources of earth as well as there are environmental disasters which deteriorate the living condition of the people (Moda and Minhas, 2019).

Hence, climate change has its critical impacts on people’s insecurities mainly in the sub Saharan African countries, where rapid urban growth in global south, loss of agricultural yields and risk of hunger and under nutrition are the major issues, additionally, loss of biodiversity, land degradation, increasing water stress and loss of human settlements among others are exacerbating existing livelihood vulnerability of the people in the sub Saharan African countries due to climate change (Adekiya et al., 2020). Hence, it is a serious issue now, where the people are living with several insecurities due to climate change in the sub Saharan African countries. the study provides a scope to review the insecurities among the people, which has happened due to climate change, through critical analysis, it would be possible to identify the internal insecurities in the sub Saharan African countries that the people are suffering from. The three countries Ghana, Kenya and Nigeria will be evaluated in order to identify existing insecurities in the regions among the people. The major impacts of climate change will be discussed in order to identify the existing insecurities and this study also provides a scope to recommend some suitable suggestions through which the people can take sustainable initiatives to tackle the insecurities.

1.6 Dissertation planning

The dissertation is conducted by five chapters, which includes introduction, literature review, research methods, data findings and discussion as well as conclusion and recommendations the introduction chapter is effective for developing the background of the study with specific research aim and objectives. The research rationale further helps to understand the insecurities that the sub Saharan counties face due to climate changes. The second chapter include the literature review in which the researcher will be able to review the existing secondary sources of information including books, journals, and articles and published news. It is effective to understand the research topic and improve knowledge about the climate change incidents in the sub Saharan countries, for which the people are suffering seriously. The third chapter is research methods, where the researcher will select suitable methods and review the ethical considerations in order to progress in the study ethically and complete it successfully within the allocated time. The fourth chapter is crucial which is data findings and discussion. in this regard, the researcher will develop in depth critical analysis by considering major three countries Ghana, Kenya and Nigeria, which are sub Saharan African countries and suffering from climate change impacts. The diverse impacts of climate change in the sub Saharan African will be evaluated in this chapter to draw the final conclusion. In conclusion and recommendation chapter, the researcher will be able to meet the research objectives and develop suitable recommendations so that the people in the sub Saharan Africa can overcome he insecurities, happened due to climate change.

2. Literature review

2.1 Introduction

The research is about insecurities in sub Saharan Africa, where the specific insecurities are considered here that have been happened due to climate change. Through reviewing the existing literatures, the researcher is able to gather vast knowledge and information by reviewing the books, journals, articles and published news. The gathered information and data are effective for the researchers to improve own understand about the climate change impacts on the insecurities among the people in sub Saharan African countries. The literature review is hereby effective to gather vast range of data and information about the insecurities exists among the individuals living in the sub Saharan African counties.

2.2 Climate change in sub Saharan Africa

In 2020, the climate change indicators in Africa were characterised by continued warming temperature, accelerating the sea level rise, extreme weather and climate events across the areas of African countries including landslides, floods and droughts which are associated with devastating impacts on the livelihood of the individuals (Mulungu and Ng’ombe, 2019). The rapid shrinking of the last remaining glaciers in eastern Africa is expected with the signals of the threat of imminent and irreversible change to the earth system. Investment is required in the countries for capacity development and technology transfer in the recent pandemic era due to COVID 19. Africa is witnessing increased weather and climate variability, which leads to disasters and disruption of economic, ecological and social systems (Mulungu and Ng’ombe, 2019). In such condition, it is also estimated that, by 2030, there would be up to 118 million extremely poor people living on less than US $ 1.90 per day, which would be happened due to exposed droughts, floods and extreme heat in Africa. This will further place burden on poverty alleviation efforts and significantly hamper growth in prosperity. Climate change could further lower gross domestic product (GDP) by up to 3% by 2050 (de Jalón, Iglesias and Neumann, 2018). Africa is being warmed faster than the global average temperature over land and ocean. Apart from that, sea level rise is another major issue where South Atlantic coasts and Indian Ocean coast are higher than the global mean rate, at approximately 3.6 mm/year and 4.1 mm/year, respectively. There is higher precipitation accomplished by flooding mainly in the Rift valley, Sahel, central Nile catchment and north eastern Africa, along with the Kalahari basin and the lower course of the Congo River.

The drought in Madagascar triggered a humanitarian crisis and additionally, dry condition prevailed in the northern coast of the Gulf of Guine and north western Africa along with south eastern part of Africa. On the other hand, only three mountains in Africa are covered by the glacier and these glaciers are too small to act as significant water reservoirs. There is extensive flooding across many parts of sub Saharan Africa, including Kenya, Somalia, Ethiopia, Sudan, Nigeria and Uganda. An estimated 12% of all new population displacements worldwide occurred in the African region where there is disaster related displacement due to excessive flood, droughts and storms (Tadesse and Dereje, 2018). Food price hike, reduction of agricultural land due to floods and other insecurities are increasing over the period of time, due to climate change impacts across the sub Saharan Africa. In sub-Saharan Africa, adaptation costs are estimated at US$ 30–50 billion to tackle such climate change incidents across the regions. Apart from the above climate change impacts, food insecurity is the main effects of climate change, where the people cannot access food and fail to meet their basic needs. Poverty and deterioration of standard of living of the individuals are the major effects of such critical insecurities in the sub Saharan African countries. Political instability, climate variability, pest outbreaks and economic crises are the major factors that raise the food insecurities among the people across the sub Saharan countries. Food insecurity increases by 5–20 percentage points with each flood or drought in sub-Saharan Africa and it is associated with the deterioration of health and reduce child’s school attendance rate over the period of time. Income and gender insecurities are also there in the countries, for which the people’ living condition is being deteriorated over the period of time (Leuenberger et al., 2019). According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the number of undernourished people has been increased by 45.6% since 2012 in the drought prone sub Saharan African countries. Hence the sub Saharan Africa is therefor considered as a vulnerable zone due to climate change impacts. The agricultural activities are deteriorated over time with reduced crop productivity associated with heat and drought stress, increased pest damage, flood impacts and diseases damage that affect the foo infrastructure of the countries.

2.3 Impacts of climate change on rising insecurities

The issue of global climate change has become prominent in the 21st century in the environmental movement as a problem of apocalyptic proportions. Global warming is one of the major causes of such climate change for which the people across the world are suffering from insecurities with deterioration of the living standard, restricted by the resources (Hasegawa et al., 2018). According to human rights and refugee specialist, climate change will lead to poverty and reducing human welfare in long run where climate change is considered as serious threat in the recent times. Stability and security of the human being are violating due to such climate change which are the most vulnerable to the security implications of a warmer world. The impacts of climate change on insecurities will be evaluated further,

Extreme weather events

Climate change is likely to increase the frequency and ferocity for extreme weather events which are known as climate shocks. The numbers of droughts and flood is increasing over the period of time due to global warming and climate change. Climate change will mean these happen with more often and more intensity in long run. Vulnerable communities face a more dangerous and insecure world with high death rate and high rate of becoming sick. Unpredictable climate change has its multiple impacts which include food and water insecurities, transport disruption, energy infrastructure, break down of education and health system, as well as economic stagnant growth and lack of social development (Anderson et al., 2021). The sub Saharan Africa is rapidly developing region of great ecological, climate and cultural diversity. Tropical Cyclone Idai was among the most destructive tropical cyclones that were recorded in the southern hemisphere, resulting in hundreds of causalities and thousands of displaced. Southern Africa has been suffered extensive droughts in the year of 2019.

The Greater Horn of Africa shifted from very dry conditions in 2018. Apart from that, landslides and flood have been happened due to heavy rainfall in the late of 2019. Flooding also affected the Sahel and surrounding areas from May to October 2019. By 2050, the population is projected to more than 2 billion. As per the analysis, GDP growth was there at the average rate of 3.5%. Most of the people in the sub Saharan Africa are living below poverty line due to such insecurities. As per the World health organisation, there was 39.6% people who are under chronic hunger and the people across the sub Saharan African countries are under nourished. Extensive areas of Africa will exceed 2 °C of warming above pre-industrial levels and the countries are already warmer more than one degree since 1901 (United Nations, 2020). Increase in heat waves and hot days further have serious impacts on the living condition of the people across the countries. By the period of 2020, there is continuous warming weather and decreasing rainfall especially over the north and southern Africa (Ray, 2021). There are rising numbers of migration of the population across the sub Saharan African countries which is associated with the climate change activities including se level rise and also disruption and lack of availability of the resources due to shifts in climate conditions or extreme weather events. Urbanisation in Africa is increasing over the period of time where most of the people are trying to shift towards urban areas in order to access the necessary resources in daily lives which have growing pressure on rural livelihoods. The nomadic pastoral livelihoods become less profitable and less feasible due to pattern of urbanisation (Drammeh, Hamid and Rohana, 2019). In general, the level of poverty and unemployment are often high among the migrants, mainly for the unskilled farmers who moved towards urban areas. Moreover, civil war cause breaks down of the governance and this exacerbates poverty and destroys the ecosystem conversation arrangement.

Health impacts

Climate change has its direct impacts on the health condition of the human being, where the people are suffering from several issues and mental illness which deteriorates the overall standard of living of the individuals across the sub Saharan African countries. Increasing heat and changes in rainfall pattern affect the health condition of the African people. Warmer temperature and higher rainfall increases habitats suitability for biting insects and transmission of vector borne disease such as dengue fever, malaria and yellow fever. Malaria often occurs after unusual rainfall and in addition, warming in the east African highlands is slowing malaria carrying mosquitoes to survive at higher altitudes (Stuch, Alcamo and Schaldach, 2021). In 2017, an estimated 93% of global malaria deaths occurred in Africa. Lengthy exposure of heat further brings the disease like heat cramps, heat exhaustion, heat stroke, fainting and death. There is correlation between high ambient temperature and increases all-cause mortality that have been identified in Kenya and Ghana. On the other hand, drought condition further raise water insecurities which is associated with different disease such as diarrhoea, scabies, trachoma and conjunctivitis where the availability and quality of water are not ensured (Zougmoré et al., 2018). Climate change also affects the agricultural activities which lead to lack of affordability and availability of the nutrition food for which most of the people in the sub Saharan Africa are under nourished. Such environment leads to child stunting, which is associated with poor reduced cognitive development and poor health into adulthood. Outbreaks of transmitted diseases, both food and water and vector borne can occur due to extreme weather events including flooding and droughts. Past outbreak of cholera is associated with the contaminated water and poor sanitation that have been observed due to heavy rainfall.

Food insecurity in sub Saharan Africa

High levels of dependence on participation for the viability of sub Saharan African agriculture is there for which seasonal activities and climate change have its serious impacts on the lignin being. Overall effects of climate change on yields of major cereals crops in the African region are very likely to be negative with strong regional variations. This indicates losses of 27-32% for maize, sorghum, groundnuts and millet for a warning of about 2 degree above temperature than normal (Pironon et al., 2019). High temperature sensitivity thresholds affect the important crops including maize, wheat and sorghum. Maize is one of the most common and important crop in sub Saharan Africa which is highly sensitive with the temperature above 30 degree within the growing season. Extremes climate activities alter the ecology of the plant pathogens and higher soil temperature can promote the fungal growth that kills seedlings. Similarly, carbon fertilising remains uncertain effects on the crops (Nkiaka, Okpara and Okumah, 2021). Livestock production in sub Saharan Africa is also vulnerable to climate change, which includes meat, milk and other dairy products. The urban poor are among the most vulnerable to foo production shocks that cause jumps in food price. Hence, extreme weather events particularly can cause simultaneous damages across different sectors.

Inter flood and rainfall as well as droughts hereby affect the overall agricultural production for which there is food insecurities among the people, where the individuals across the sub Saharan African countries cannot access and afford the foods. Reduction in agricultural production will increase the price of the products for which the numbers of people living below poverty line is increasing over the period of time, where they cannot afford basic food items in daily lives (Nkiaka, Okpara and Okumah, 2021). According to the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, in the drought-prone sub-Saharan African countries, the number of undernourished people has increased by 45.6% since 2012 (Berhanu and Wolde, 2019). Agriculture is mainly the backbone of African’s economy and accounts majority of the livelihoods across the continent. An exposure and vulnerability “hot spot” for climate variability and change affect the overall agricultural activities across the countries. Warming scenarios risk has devastating effects on crop production and food security (Richardson et al., 2018). Hence, the extreme weather activities affect the food system infrastructure adversely with reduced crop production, heat and drought stress, leading to food insecurities in the sub Saharan Africa (Richardson et al., 2018). Due to their greater resilience to heat-stress conditions, while rice and wheat are expected to be the most affected crops and there are also other necessary crops whose production process is being affected by the extreme weather conditions.

2.4 Climate Change Mitigation Action Plan

It is important for the government of the countries across the sub Saharan Africa to collaborate with each other and develop climate change mitigation plan in order to protect the livelihood of the individuals. Promoting sustainable growth especially in the rural areas is mandatory with developmental of social infrastructure and supporting the people to tackle the climate change activities across the areas (Stuch, Alcamo and Schaldach, 2021). Weather driven migration plan must be designed by ensuring construction of urban areas, where the government and policy makers must develop effective infrastructure for migrating people in order to tackle the climate change activities across the countries in sub Saharan Africa (Lottering, Mafongoya and Lottering, 2021). Providing easy access to weather and climate information is important, especially for the women who make up a large percentage of the agricultural workforce and are the most vulnerable. Promoting climate friendly agricultural activities including efficient, clean energy and micro irrigation is also essential policy to support the people cross the sub Saharan African countries and develop effective planning for sustainable agriculture (Berhanu and Wolde, 2019). Providing broad and sustained support for the food security an expanded access to health care with emphasise on the most vulnerable community are mandatory in order to improve wellbeing of the people cross the countries. It is important to ensure food security so that the numbers of people below poverty line will be reduced in long run and they can avail the food and meet their basic needs (Tadesse and Dereje, 2018).

On the other hand, health infrastructure must be developed efficiently with availability and affordability of the treatment and social care for the people, mainly for the vulnerable communities. Presence of clinical staff and experienced doctors in the health care home is mandatory in order to support the special communities and treat them with latest treatment and medication to maximise their standard of living. Increasing intra African cooperation to manage conflicts and provide disaster relief campaign is another strategy through which the government and the policy makers can collaborate and develop strong infrastructure for protecting the human being across the countries (Berhanu and Wolde, 2019). On the other hand, substantial increase in investment in the agricultural research as Africa represents 17% of the world’s population and is heavily dependent on agriculture. Conducting in-depth research on agriculture and accessing all the necessary information about climate change further help the policy makers to develop effective infrastructure to protect the agriculture in Africa as well as implement latest technology for increasing availability of agricultural products (Nkiaka, Okpara and Okumah, 2021).

2.5 Summary

Literature review hereby helps to review the existing literatures and other source of books and journal, to understand the climate change impacts which raise insecurities among the people across the sub Saharan Africa. There are extreme weather activities for which the living standard of the individuals have ben deteriorated over the period of time. Additionally, there are health and food insecurities raised from climate change, extreme flood and droughts. The individuals are living under nourished which further deteriorates the health condition. The children are also suffering from poverty and place of access of the health and social care services for which their cognitive skill development and mental health are hampered in long run. Through the critical review, it has also been explored that, the government and policy makers across the sub Saharan African countries are concerned about disaster relief campaign in order to protect the individuals and develop concern about tackling the climate change activities over the years. It is important to conduct in-depth analysis by considering the countries Ghana, Kenya and Nigeria, to analyse existing insecurities due to climate change.

3. Research methodology

3.1 Research philosophy

It is important for the researchers to choose the right method in order to follow a systematic way to conduct the study successfully. The research philosophy is important to be selected efficiently, as per the research aim and objectives. The study is about insecurities in sub Saharan Africa, where the main focus is on climate change. There are three types of research philosophies including interpretivism, realism and positivism. Interpretivism philosophy is beneficial for the study where the researcher is able to interpret the data and influence the information for drawing final conclusion. Through critical interpretation and analyses, it is possible of the researchers to evaluate the findings and meet the research aim. On the other hand, realism is the practice of interlinking the theories with the reality in the society. It is independent of human thoughts and beliefs, social object, external environmental factors. The researchers are concerned about social existence and social activities in order to analyse the study topic. On the other hand, positivism philosophy is analysing the data and collected information related to the research topic by effective inclusion of the human being. The study is mainly a secondary research, where the researcher will choose interpretivism philosophy for gathering vast range of data and information and interpret it for critical evaluation.

3.2 Research approaches

Deductive and inductive are two types of research approaches through which the researchers can develop systematic way to perform efficiently and meet the study objectives. The deductive approach is mainly the theory driven hypothesis, where the researchers try to gather theories and concepts related to the study topic as well as create observation for further critical analysis and evaluation. The inductive approach differs from the deductive approach, where the researchers mainly gather the information and analyse it to develop new theories and models related to the topic of the research. In this particular study, the researchers select deductive approach. The researcher will gather vast range of information and data about insecurities in sub Saharan Africa and analyse it for better critical evaluation.

3.3 Data collection method

The strategy of data collection is important for the researchers to choose the best way for gathering valid information related to the above mentioned research topic. There are two types of data collection method, which are primary and secondary data collection. The primary data collection method refers to gathering the data from the respondents directly through designing survey, questionnaire, case study analysis and interview. The first hand data and information are beneficial for the researchers to analyse the study topic efficiently. On the other hand, the secondary data can be collected through reviewing the books, journals, articles and online published articles, which are considered the authentic secondary sources to collect relevant information for the research. In this particular study, the researcher selects secondary data collection method, for gathering vast range of information related to insecurities in sub Saharan Africa with main focus on climate change. The books, journals and published articles related to the insecurities in three major countries, Ghana, Kenya and Nigeria will be gathered for understanding the perspective of insecurities, finding the causes and effects to conduct critical analysis.

3.4 Data analysis techniques

The data analysis method is of two types which are quantitative and qualitative data analysis, through which it is possible for the researchers to conduct in depth critical analysis for meeting the objectives of the paper. The quantitative data analysis technique is the practice of analysing the data through charts, graphs, tables, statistical software SPSS and descriptive statistics. On the other hand, thematic analysis, in-depth evaluation through applying the secondary sources of information is the practice of qualitative data analysis. The researcher in this regard selects secondary data analysis method, where different themes will be developed for in depth critical analysis. The three countries will be chosen for analysing insecurities in sub Saharan Africa. The selected countries are Ghana, Kenya and Nigeria and through secondary data analysis, it is possible for the researcher to evaluate the impacts of climate change on rising insecurities in the counties.

3.5 Ethical considerations

Ethical consideration is important to be followed for successful completion of the research, where the researchers maintain validity and reliability of the study. The authentic information is being gathered for critical evaluation and the researcher will ensure that the collected information is being utilised only for this study without any data manipulation. On the other hand, Data Protection Act 1998 is being implemented for protecting the information and utilising it in the research. Relevant and valid data are included in this study to fulfil the research questions and analyse insecurities in the selected countries. Through maintaining data security, research ethics and authenticity, it is possible for the researcher to complete the study efficiently.

4. Data findings and analysis

4.1 Introduction

The data findings and analysis is the main chapter, through which it is possible to review the existing insecurities in the sub Saharan countries due to climate change, and the researcher will be able to analyse the above mentioned research topic critically. The research aim and objectives can be met with evaluation of the insecurities where three countries are being chosen, which are Kenya, Ghana and Nigeria. climate change has its serious impacts on the human being, as well as health condition, living condition have been hampered due to climate change. Through secondary research, it is possible to explore the insecurities in the countries due to climate change.

4.2 Data findings

Theme 1: Impacts of climate change in Kenya

Kenya is one of growing country in sub Saharan Africa, in terms of GDP and national income. Climate change in Kenya is increasingly affecting the lives of the Kenya’s citizens and the environment (Abdulai, 2018). The people are getting affected for such climate change which further deteriorates the quality of life of the people, living in the country (Adekiya et al., 2020). Climate change has led to sot frequently extreme weather events like irregular and unpredictable rainfall, flooding and increasing temperature as well as droughts which last longer than usual. Such climate change has serious impacts on the agricultural activities of the country, where agriculture and harvesting are accounted about 33% of the total GDP that are also at risk (Anderson et al., 2021). The effects of this climate change have made existing challenges with water insecurity and food insecurity. Increased temperature, rainfall variability in arid and semi-arid areas, strong wind associated with tropical cyclone also have its serious impacts on breeding and migration of pests (Berhanu and Wolde, 2019).

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The above mentioned climate change activities during this pervious of time, hamper the living condition of the people, living in Kenya. The temperature is being raised tremendously which increases difficulties for the people to live safely and securely. There are several diseases that deteriorate the quality of life, along with food insecurity and water insecurities. Two most important sectors in Kenya are agriculture and tourism, which are highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. A drought lasting from 2008 to 2011 caused an estimated $12.1 billion in damage. About 500000 people lost their access to water and additionally, food insecurity caused by droughts from 2014 to 2022 affected approximately more than 3.4 million people in the country. Kenya is a largest economy in East and Central Africa with a population of 48.5 million people and it contributes in communication, financial and trade hub within the region (de Jalón, Iglesias and Neumann, 2018). economic damage by climate change and extreme weather may deteriorate the country’s GDP to 2.6% by 2030. Agriculture and livestock are also affected due to climate change, and this sector accounts more than 33% of Kenya’s GDP ad is considered as the primary source of sustenance for 60% of the population. In some areas of Kenya temperatures can exceed 35 °C at which heat damage maize, which is a staple crop in the country (Le et al., 2019). The country is also one of the leading country with largest producer of tea, and by export earnings, it contributes on GDP about 4%. It also created jobs in the economy, by ensuring rural to urban migration. Climate change affect the tea production as well as the employment rate of the country has also been deteriorated. It is expected to increase pest and disease loads in domesticated animals, especially in arid and semi-arid (ASALs) regions. Due to high temperature in Kenya, climate change could result in the loss of 52% of ASAL cattle population at a cost of US$340–680 million to the economy (Chepkoech et al., 2018).

Kenya’s manufacturing sector produces goods for both domestic and international exports, which is the largest sector of Sub Saharan Africa accounting 10% of GDP and employing approximately 15% of formal sector labour. The climate change activities have serious impacts on the manufacturing sector of Kenya, such as greater resources scarcity such as water and raw materials due to climate variations and increasing scarcity of water (Kogo, Kumar and Koech, 2021). Energy fluctuation due to interruption of energy supply arising from lower annual rainfall and severe droughts that causes the water level in the hydroelectric power plants to decline this resulting to low power production. This further affects the manufacturing activities and deteriorates overall production and performance of the firm across the country. Decreasing plants, production and infrastructure damages and supply chain disruption are associated with this climate change activities in Kenya such as heat waves, winds, floods, droughts, heavy rainfall, cyclones and storms (Drammeh, Hamid and Rohana, 2019). Apart from that there is a serious health impact due to climate change, which includes risk of vector and water born disease. 83 million people are expected to be at risk of Malaria by 2070 as well as dengue fever is similarly expected to rise (Kabubo-Mariara and Mulwa, 2019). Due to lack of environment for living, food and water insecurity, the child development is being hampered, due to underweight children, lack of fulfilment of basic needs, and nutrition of the children (Hasegawa et al., 2018). In 2010 the Kenyan government published the National Climate Change Response Strategy as well as Climate Change Action 2016 is also effective for the development, management, implementation and regulation of mechanisms to enhance climate change resilience (Wetende, Olago and Ogara, 2018). In 2015, National Adaption Plan has been implemented and current National Climate Change Action Plan 2018-2022 are effective to tackle the serious impacts of climate change across Kenya.

Theme 2: Effects of climate change Ghana

Climate change in Ghana is projected to affect its vital water resources, energy supplies, crop production and food insecurity (Lottering, Mafongoya and Lottering, 2021). Ghana is already experiencing increased extreme weather condition with higher incidence of heat and more prolonged period of flooding and droughts. The vulnerability of the country is due to high dependency on the production of crop that are highly sensitive to the climate change, including cassava, cocoa and by a lack of agricultural diversification (Assan et al., 2018). It is evidenced that, temperature increases over the past decades about 40 C over 100 years, which is strongest increase between April and July. The northern part of the country as experienced the incidents of droughts and floods, and for example, in 2007, more than 325000 people were affected due to such climate change issue. In 2015, days to torrential rain around area related in widespread flooding and left 159 dead (Chemura, Schauberger and Gornott, 2020). Food insecurity is the major issue of climate change in Ghana; due to increase in water stress as streams, rivers and small scale dam system dry up totally. Flooding in coastal area and low water level also affect the crop harvest. There is significant decrease in crop production with reduced yields particularly for cassava. Due to high temperature and standing water, there is outbreak of crop and livestock pests (Moda and Minhas, 2019). Ecosystem has also been deteriorating for which there is increasing numbers of unproductive lands in the country (Cobbinah et al., 2019). Post-harvest losses due to difficulties in crop preservation as a result of heavy rainfall are other serious impacts which raise food insecurities among the people. Salinization also affects the crops due to sea erosion and flooding in the coastal region (Leuenberger et al., 2019).

For example, Cocoa is a major cash crop and Ghana’s second leading foreign exchange earner. It is highly sensitive to high temperature and droughts (Mulungu and Ng’ombe, 2019). The area suitable for cocoa production will be contracted by 2030 due to temperature rise, increase in flood and soil salinization as well as coastal erosion (Adzawla et al., 2020). Groundnuts are currently cultivated mainly in the north, but no clear yield change projections under climate change. On the other hand, rice cultivation is expected to decrease by 25% due to climate change along with the production of maize will also be expected to decrease in 2050. Cassava yields are expected to decrease due to rise in temperature and water stress in Ghana. Northern Ghana has experienced flood disasters that affect the food production. Climate change has its serious impacts on food production in Ghana, for which the people in the country are mainly suffering from food insecurity (Asare-Nuamah and Botchway, 2019). On the other hand, hydropower generation is also at risk. There will be an increase in the incident rate of diarrheal cases, measles, malaria, cholera, cerebo-spoinal meningitis, guinea worm infestation and other water related disease among the individuals. there is serious impacts of climate change on the poverty level of Ghana, where lack of employment opportunities, deterioration of the cultivation and production process, lack of resources further lead the people towards below poverty line (Nkiaka, Okpara and Okumah, 2021).

Theme 3: Influences of climate change Nigeria

Nigeria’s climate is also likely to see growing shifts in temperature, rainfalls, storms and sea level rise, throughout the 21st century, this climate change challenges have direct impacts on land and water with shorter supply of other resources that further deteriorate the quality of life and increase human insecurities (Richardson et al., 2018). Resource shortage is one of the major issues raised for climate change where land scarcity is the first issue. Due to temperature rise and climate change, it has been expected that the two third areas of Bauchi, Borno, Gombe, Jigawa, Kano, Kaduna, Katsina, Kebbi, Sokoto, Yobe, and Zamfara states could turn desert in upcoming years. As per the government geological data there is 400% increase in sand dunes over twenty years (Shiru et al., 2020). 1.5 foot sea level rise would submerge more than 11000 square miles of the coastal land. Water shortage is another issue in Nigeria due to climate change, were poor management and government supply failure make the people living in insecurities (Oseke et al., 2021). More heat, less rainfall and droughts are common climate change in some of the parts of Nigeria. Poor water supply management and lack of water conservation policy are the major reasons for which the citizens in Nigeria are suffering from water insecurity (Pironon et al., 2019). In other parts of southern Nigeria, flooding caused by sea level rise is also contaminating the freshwater aquifers, rivers, and stock-watering points, leaving them with high salinity and more polluted with sediment and sewage (Ray, 2021). Hence, the quality of water for consumption cannot be maintained well due to climate change. Wind and rainstorms alone damaged or destroyed at least $720 million in economically productive assets across twelve of Nigeria’s thirty-six states during 2007 (Osuji et al., 2022). Due to such climate change, the overall production and manufacturing activities are being hampered tremendously, which further raises production cost and drips in investment.

On the other hand, there are serious impacts of climate change on health condition of the people. Some populations could experience more sickness and death (Stuch, Alcamo and Schaldach, 2021). Polluted water increase the mortality from Malaria and cholera heat stress and sun stroke is also other issues for which death rate is increasing over the period of time. Government and WHO figures show at least 1,600 Nigerians died in 20,000 floods over a decade (Shiru et al., 2020). Human displacement is another aspect of climate change; the numbers of people leaving their home is increasing over the period if time, due to extreme heat, flood and resource scarcity. It has been expected that 9.7 million Nigerians could be vulnerable to rising seas by 2050 (Awazi and Tchamba, 2019). There were more than 3 million people, displaced between 1999 and 2006 and also about 80000 people were homeless at the end of 2009 (Anabaraonye, Okafor and Ikuelogbon, 2019). Food insecurity is another critical issue in Nigeria, due to climate change, where the people cannot access food on a daily basis. 85% of all Nigerian agriculture is rain fed and many crops are sensitive to even tiny shifts in rainfall and temperature. There is strong linkage between mounting crop failures and declining yields in the northeast to higher temperatures and drought (Tadesse and Dereje, 2018). Little irrigation, low rainfall and extreme heat also affect crops harvesting in the country. On the other hand, rising sea is also flooding farmland along the southern coast and making soils too salinized for planting (Akinsemolu and Olukoya, 2020). The production of staples like maize and yam is already stagnant, and with the increasing population in the country, the issue of food insecurity become serious in the recent years. Hereby, the Nigeria’s economy relies heavily on the climate-sensitive occupations like farming, fishing, and logging occupy 70 % of the workforce, contributing over half of the GDP (Moda, Filho and Minhas, 2019).

4.3 Critical discussion

An increase in temperature up to 2.50 C by 2050 is predicted to increase the frequency of extreme events such as floods and droughts. Due to extreme weather changes, there are hot and dry conditions in the Arid and semi-Arid lands making droughts and flooding which become more dangerous for the individuals to manage their daily lives (Zougmoré et al., 2018). The coastal communities in Kenya are also suffering from sea level rise and it is associated with the saltwater intrusion (Dagnachew et al., 2018). Lake Victoria, Lake Turkana and other lakes across the countries have significantly increased in size between 2010 and 2020, and due to flooding the lakes; the individuals are suffering from safe living and having necessities in their lives. All these factors impact at-risk populations like marginalized communities, women and the youth (Falchetta et al., 2019). Due to climate change, there is high cost of production due to unstable supply of electricity and lack of availability of the resources with higher insurance premium. The climate change raises the chance of irregular rainfalls, hit and droughts and this further affect the harvesting and agricultural activities, which reduce the production of the food items in Kenya (United Nations, 2020). This raises food insecurity as well as water insecurity also exists there for which the people are living safely and their basic needs are not fulfilled due to such climate change.

Apart from that, in Ghana and Nigeria, the people are also suffering from food insecurity. Poverty is also another major issue due to climate change, where the people are losing the job opportunities in the market (Tadesse, Bishaw and Assefa, 2018). Due to extreme heat and irregular rainfall and other climate change activities, the producers and manufacturer fail to manage their operations, for which labour retrenchment becomes a serious issue. The purchasing power parity of the individuals has been deteriorated over the period of time, with rise in food and water insecurity (Cuthbert et al., 2019). The children are mostly affected as their basic needs cannot be fulfilled, and they are suffering from different water related disease and mainly underweight. It is high time for the government of the countries to take active initiatives, for mitigating the impacts of climate change. Building climate resilience infrastructure is important along with developing climate resilient agriculture and food security system (Dagnachew et al., 2018). In order to reduce water insecurity, the government is playing crucial role in improving the overall management, resilience of terrestrial, aquatic and marine ecosystem, so that water reservoirs and supply can be managed well (Moda, Filho and Minhas, 2019). Addressing the impacts of climate change on human health through immediate diagnosis and developing health care infrastructure in the countries are important for the government, through which it would be possible to take care of the people and provide quality care. The government is concerned about carbon sinks and minimising greenhouse gas emission (Awazi and Tchamba, 2019). Hereby, the government and local authority are working collaboratively to develop climate resilient infrastructure for protecting the human being and maximise the wellbeing of the individuals.

5. Conclusion and recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

Through the data analysis and discussion, it can be concluded that, climate change has its serious impacts on the people living in the sub Saharan Africa. For the study, major countries selected are Ghana, Kenya and Nigeria. In Kenya, there is serious impacts of climate change on human health condition, food insecurity and water insecurity along with sea level rise and reduction of food production. In Ghana, food insecurity is the main issue along with poverty, for which the overall quality of life of the individuals is being deteriorated over the period of time. Additionally, in Nigeria, the cultivation as well as manufacturing sector is being affected due to climate change. Due to extreme heat, floods and droughts, the cultivation of major crops like Maize and Rice are being affected. On the other hand, due to resources scarcity and rise in the cost of production, the manufacturers cannot continuous their operations. The employment rate is also being decreased due to such condition. It is hereby important for the government to tackle the issue of climate change and develop alternative plan of ensuring climate resilient infrastructural development. Throughout the study, it is hereby possible to meet the research objectives by reviewing the climate change impacts on the Sub Saharan Africa by choosing the countries, Kenya, Ghana and Nigeria. Further recommendations will be proposed so that it would be possible to mitigate the main issue of food and water insecurities across the countries, caused by climate change.

5.2 Recommendations for mitigating climate change impacts

It is important for the government of the countries, Nigeria, Ghana and Kenya to take active part and develop intervention planning for reducing the serious impacts of climate change. It is important to invest in harvesting and irrigation for maintaining crop production, and reducing the direct impacts of climate change. The water supply and maintaining reservoirs are necessary to be handled well by the government, so that the issue of water insecurities among the individuals can be reduced. On the other hand, managing environmental sustainability is another major aspect of tackling climate change, where the government should be concerned about sustainable land use, reducing of greenhouse gas emissions, using renewable energy resources and managing waste, this practice will provide scope to manage the production sustainable. Climate resilient infrastructure must be developed to protect the individuals during flood and sea level rise. Along with this, it is essential to ensure resource availability, so that the basic needs of the individuals can be fulfilled well. The health and social care system is playing a crucial role in improving the quality of life of the people in the sub Saharan Africa, under such issue of climate change. As there are several water related diseases, heat exhaustion and other diseases due to climate change, the government must develop health care infrastructure and provide access to the individuals for better diagnosis and treatment. Immediate care and treatment would be necessary for protecting the people, including the children in the society and help them to live a healthy life. Through such programs, the government can maximise wellbeing of the individuals and run their agriculture and manufacturing sector sustainably in long run.

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