Tech and Secondary Education

  • 12 Pages
  • Published On: 05-06-2024

Chapter 1

Background of the Study

Technological development brought about in the age of the internet and computers has significantly impacted the way of life of man, impacting almost all aspects of the humans daily life including, business, livelihood, communication and certainly knowledge gathering and the process of learning. Different technological developments, equipment and tools have been developed that have greatly impacted the process of teaching and learning. Among these include devices such as laptops, smart boards and smart tables among others as well as technologically enhanced learning and teaching models including: flipped classrooms, networked learning and creative spaces. The internet itself and its various domains and websites also present potential learning and teaching materials. One of the most popular one perhaps is You Tube, a social network site with which different individuals can post videos of whatever they intend to showcase including tutorials to carrying out different activities thereby standing out to impact the general process of education.


Development of these online sites and technological resources has been possible due to increased computer technology as a result of computer programming and software development. Different software including SMART boards, Tutorial software, and simulations have been developed to enhance learning in institutions such as schools, colleges and universities as well as other community based learning centers. According to Raja and Nagasubramini (2018), technology has profoundly changed education in a wide range of ways including; easier analysis and understanding of information, classification and manipulation of information for benefits, increasing accessibility to different amount of literature and knowledge that enhance education and learning as well as enhancing easier and more effective personal learning.

The process of coding which involves the manipulation of computer language to be able to develop different applications and computer software has significantly impacted the continued enhancement and development of technology in different technological devices that are significant in teaching and impacting easier and more efficient learning. However what impact has technology had, significantly with regards to enhancing education in secondary school levels? This research aims to evaluate the impact of technological development in secondary education.

Research Aim

The aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of technological development on secondary school education and to be able to achieve this; the research will refer to specific objectives for the research process which include:

Research Objectives

  • To critically evaluate the literature on ways technology has revolutionized the education sector
  • To evaluate the extent with which technology is used in secondary school education
  • To determine the different technology available for use in secondary school education
  • To highlight the impact of technology in secondary school education

Rationale of the study

A wide range of other sectors of the human indulgence has significantly engaged and taken into practice technological alternatives and as such have been significantly impacted and improved in terms of efficiency as well as reliability. Different industries and businesses including organizations now leverage technology significantly in their various departments leading to the general increase in the efficiency of these industries. Ramey (2012) highlights however that while technology has a wide range of positive impacts and significance to different activities and aspects of life it also comes about with a wide range of negative impacts that may not be immediately foreseen. As such this research sets to establish the impact of technology in secondary school education and can serve to highlight the different technological innovations that are effective for adaption in secondary school as well as those that are not.

Research Methodology

The research will adopt a qualitative research methodology aimed at collecting as much information from secondary sources with regards to how technology has impacted secondary school operations. The research will adopt a systematic review of the available literature spanning the last decade on relevant technology. The review involves appraising previous studies and synthesizing findings qualitatively using a systematic thematic analysis approach in collecting secondary data. It plays to the advantage of the empirical association of the research where valid conclusions are effectively and sufficiently based on the findings.

Chapter 2

Literature Review


This chapter highlights a narrative of available literature on the impact of technology on secondary education. In line with the research aims and objectives the study will involve a general evaluation of how technology has generally revolutionized the process of learning and teaching which involves education, the extent to which technology is applied in secondary schools within the UK, evaluate the available technology that is currently used within secondary schools and point out some of the overall positive and negative impacts of technology on secondary education.

Technological revolution of teaching and learning

While technology cannot be claimed to have significantly revolutionized education as in industries such as the manufacturing and assembling industries as well as in business where set ups, frameworks as well as methodologies have all changed multiple times since the introduction of the internet and digital technology, Raza (2017) points out that in many ways including increasing accessibility, opening up new, effective and efficient ways for communication and collaboration as well as changing the teaching and learning, technology has profoundly changed education.

Fathers and Clemens (2017) highlight that unlike medieval times leading up to the discovery of the internet where information only existed in rare forms of print media including, scrolls, books, newspapers and magazines all of which were significantly difficult to access especially if one did not live in an urbanized area, in the current era and as a result of technological development access to information and education is relatively easier. Kim (2018) highlights that while access to formal education may still present a challenge due to the cost, massive amounts of information including: books, audio files, images and videos are now available at people’s fingertips.

In addition McKnight (2016) points out those opportunities for communication and collaboration have also been expanded as a result of technology. While closed classrooms provided rigid and isolated learning environments, technology and the internet enable a more inclusive learning through sharing of different experiences of different learners in different regions (Kim, 2018). McKnight (2016) further confirm that opportunities for formal learning are also available online globally through online degree programs, podcasts, websites and tutorials some of which are free and easily accessible. Technology has also significantly altered the role of the teacher and the learning creating an environment where all individuals can freely and insightfully learn from one another (Fathers and Clemens, 2017). All these aspects of technology have been significant in revolutionizing education in the current century at all levels.

Extent of Tech Use in Schools

While a wide range of technological developments exist that are significant and impactful in enhancing learning and teaching among individuals in the internet, not all the tech can be applied in formal learning within schools and professional learning centers. Mehlinger and Powers (2018) points out that while technological proponents have from time to time claimed that technology will replace teachers, the typical view among educators is that technology can be used effectively to supplement instruction by providing instructional variety and helping to make abstract concepts concrete, and by stimulating interest among students.

Integration of IT in learning process requires practical skills and access to technological tools for teachers as well as the ability of students to relate with and understand the information being relayed through the use of these technologies. Hanimoglu (2018) as such highlight that many academic institutions have significantly invested in the purchase of equipment. Given the current generation being born into a digital world where almost all human indulgences are increasingly shifting to the digital environment, education institutions are also significantly adopting technology that the students can relate to including smart boards, tablets, Smartphone screens and colorful Smartphone apps to not only teach and enhance the learning process but also familiarize the students at a younger age with the digital environment in which most of the jobs in the current century is increasingly becoming based on (Benady, 2017). These technologies enable not only a more interactive and lively class and teaching session among the teacher and learner but also the looping in of the students’ parents and guardians in the learning process of the students (Hoggins, 2020).

Available Technology

According to a report by the British Educational Suppliers Association (BESA), school spending on ICT is set to rise for the first time in three years given that only 33% of secondary schools and 60% of primary schools feel they are adequately equipped with ICT infrastructure and devices for effective and efficient learning within the UK (Colby and Cuffaro, 2018). A wide range of educational technology exist within the digital world that can be effectively used in the formal education systems within the UK and all across the globe including smart phones and tablets which are widely spread across and almost all secondary schools in the current century owns one.

Smart boards enhance the efficiency of the teaching process right from teacher organization and teaching as well as interaction with the students and their parents or guardians to ensure progress. The department of Education according to (2019) points out that these technology not only enhance the process of in class formal education but also general education as individuals and factors within and outside the class can be introduced to capture more of a student’s interest or uncover and simplify a complex concept. Other available Education Technology that can be used in the secondary school level include: Instructional technology such as flash notes, chrome books, lore and paper tab as well as tutoring and teaching technology including:, Socrative, Self cad, Prezi and Adobe Spark Video among a wide variety of many others (Juike, 2010).

Impact of Technology

While evaluating the impact of technology in secondary school or any other singular education institution alone may not be feasible and accurate the overall impact that technology has had in the process of education and ability of individuals to increasingly learn and understand information is significant and evident with the continued increase of technological development and application in all disciplines of human life. However among some of the impacts that technology has had on secondary school education according to Benady (2017) include increased scope and accessibility to information significant for secondary students learning in the UK and all across the globe. Education has also enabled and provided increased opportunities for communication and collaboration all across the globe which impacts student learning in secondary schools.

For instance Raza (2017) points out that students in a classroom in the UK can easily and effectively learn about any other part of the world by following expeditions of teams of scientists in the various regions, reading blog posts, viewing videos and photos as well as inquiring from the scientists regarding any questions. Fathers and Clemens (2017) further points out that this provides more direct and accurate education and learning mechanisms compared to subsequent journals and articles written from years of research and generalizations. Technology also enables the switching of the teacher student roles enabling more avenues for learning and a highly diversified learning environment that significantly enhances the process of learning and education.


A wide range of Educational technology is available within the industries and is increasingly being applied by teachers and schools to be able to enhance the process of education and learning. Among the major ways that technology has impacted learning and education in secondary schools within the UK includes increasing accessibility to education and learning materials, opening up effective opportunities for effective communication and collaboration as well as significantly impacting the respective roles of the teacher and the learner to eventually make education and learning a more flexible and dynamic process with increased levels of efficiency and eventual success.

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  • Benady, D. (2017). Is technology delivering in schools? Our panel debates. [online] the Guardian. Available at: [Accessed 8 Feb. 2020].
  • Colby, S. and Cuffaro, J. (2018). The rise and rise of digital technology in the classroom - BESA. [online] BESA. Available at: [Accessed 8 Feb. 2020].
  • Fathers, F. and Clemens, J. (2017). You are being redirected.... [online] Available at: [Accessed 8 Feb. 2020].
  • Hanımoğlu, E. (2018). The Impact Technology Has Had on High School Education over the Years. World Journal of Education, 8(6), p.96.
  • Hoggins, T. (2020). Why Britain is top of the class for education technology. [online] The Telegraph. Available at: [Accessed 8 Feb. 2020].
  • Juike, T. (2010). Best examples of Educational Technologies | Tutorroom. [online] TutorRoom | Online teaching software. Available at: [Accessed 8 Feb. 2020].
  • Kim, A. (2018). How Technology Is Changing Education - Steelcase. [online] Steelcase. Available at: [Accessed 8 Feb. 2020].
  • McKnight, K. (2016). Top 12 Ways Technology Changed Learning. [online] TeachHUB. Available at: [Accessed 8 Feb. 2020].
  • Mehlinger, H. and Powers, S. (2018). Technology in Education - School. [online] Available at: [Accessed 8 Feb. 2020].
  • Raja, R. and Nagasubramani, P. (2018). Impact of modern technology in education. Journal of Applied and Advanced Research, 3(S1), p.33.
  • Ramey K (2012). The impact of technology on our lives today. [online]. Available at: [Accessed 8 Feb. 2020].
  • Raza, A. (2017). How Technology Has Changed Education - Use of Technology. [online] Use of Technology. Available at: [Accessed 8 Feb. 2020].
  • (2019). Realising the potential of technology in education. [online] Available at: [Accessed 8 Feb. 2020].

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