Socio-Economic Impact on Landscape Design Preferences

Abstract

This study is regarding the impact of the socio-economic status upon the experience of the landscape architecture design change, has more focus on architecture dissertation help. This study has applied surveys as primary data collection processes, whereas secondary data is gathered through journals, books, and academic papers. This study has taken income, occupation, and education as a significant three socio-economic factors that affect the experience. The findings have stated that different people have different perceptions and preferences regarding landscape architecture, wherein income, education, and occupation have a direct impact upon them.

Chapter 1: Introduction

Over the past two decades, landscape architecture designs are capturing primary attention, and there is a change in trends because of the shifts in the perceptions of the professionals. Landscape architects are one of few professions which give solution to climate-positive designs and make the usage of tools like Pathfinder to generate data and justification for plans. Landscape architecture designs are affected using several factors like change in climate, financial investments, the social-economic status of the person, etc. This study aims to analyze if the experience of landscape architecture designs changes by a person’s socio-economic status. In this study, socio-economic factors like Occupation, education, and Income will be taken into consideration. The research question associated with this study is: Does the experience of a Landscape Architecture design change by a person’s socioeconomic status, i.e., Occupation, Education, and income. This study is the rationale as very few researches are made, which is linked with the impact of socioeconomic status upon landscape architecture design. The new researcher can attain benefits from it.

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Chapter 2: Literature review

2.1 Landscape architecture

Foster (2010) has stated that Landscape architecture is the designing of the structures, landmarks, and other public areas to attain socio-cultural, environmental, and aesthetic results. It possesses the examination of the ecological, social, and geological conditions in the landscape. It is a multi-disciplinary area that possesses aspects such as horticulture, botany, geology, geography, ecology, and many others, which affects archaeology. The landscape architecture activities in the urban conservation project consist of designing of public parks and parkways, site planning, and management of larger areas. Landscape architecture review different types of structures that are either larger or smaller and are made up of either hard or soft material (Vroom, 2016). The generation of the ideas, along with acknowledgment for organizing designs and usage of space, are some of the vital contributions made by this architecture approach. The primary purpose of the business of landscape architecture is to attain beauty and utility in the outdoor environment. In order to fulfill this viewpoint, the layout of the construction is considered and reviewed if it is functional and practical and composed artistically or not. The smooth and convenient functioning of the design is also considered to fit the topography (Motloch, 2011).

2.2 Factors of architectural designs

As per Nasir, Ahmad, and Ahmed (2013), landscape architecture such as building architecture is linked with certain factors of models like scale, proportion, color, emphasis, unity, and contrast. The range is known as the size of the building parts like windows and doors, which is linked with uses and purposes. Since buildings are made for the usage of people, so scales are selected similarly. The designing scale is considered as per the requirement of the human beings wherein certain parts are made as per the building standards. The landscape might vary as per the purpose wherein in the garden; the pieces are made of a smaller scale. However, the landscaping of the government building requires more extensive and impressive buildings. It is thus analyzed that levels of the public and essential landscape are much larger than the domestic scene, but the scale cannot be uniform and same throughout the architecture process (Foster, 2010).

Unity is another factor that is considered while landscape designing. It is reviewed that various parts of the designs need to be united and must showcase their purposes in harmonious compositions. It is necessary for the landscaping and building to make harmonious output when the garden makes a building. Proportion is another factor that is associated with the link between the shape of different features and parts of the landscape. It is stated that there needs to be a smooth link between details and mass designs. The color is also considered wherein it needs to be harmonious despite used materials. The color of the landscape should be in harmony with the building adjoin with it to enhance the beauty of the architecture building (Nasir, Ahmad, and Ahmed, 2013).

As per Kapper and Chenoweth (2010), it is further essential for the architect to review the contrast in the landscape designs. It must not be apparent to generate unharmonious outputs or affect the design’s unity. The differences could be attained in various size, color, texture, and forms. It acts as the means to add value and beauty to the designs. The architect of the landscape gives significant emphasis on the fulfillment of the needs of the clients. However, a vital consideration is given on types of enclosure, ways to cover areas of the floor, and different kinds of ceilings (Kapper and Chenoweth,2010).

2.3 Different methods of designing

System modeling, environmental relation, and anthropometric analogies are the three different methods of designing landscape architecture. They are explained below.

System modeling is the designing process that resolves the designing by reviewing the system, acknowledging the function and stimuli as well as placing the order and substituting the elements of designing. For instance, during the time of designing a plaza, the designer review crowd as water moving with tides. They even make management strategies of the groups like the controlling of the movement of the water (Lawson, 2015).

Environmental relations possess a direct relationship between human beings and the environment. The designers even acknowledge on how materials make interaction with the environment and further make the decision regarding the construction of the landscape. The landscape architects generally incorporate the plants and other designing tools in the designs to minimize the impacts of the environment on the projects (Zube & et al., 2010).

Anthropometric analogies are another method that is applied in the designing of landscape architecture. This method generally gives focus on the body of humans and its link with the goals of designing. Since there is a baseline relationship prevailing in between the human body and designs, so the designers need to make designs that are related to the sites. For instance, it is reviewed by the designers if the bench or other designing models are comfortable or not (Thompson, 2008).

2.4 System theory in landscape architecture

According to Murphy (2015), System theory is the theory that possesses a distant perspective to landscape and review the objective of the scene. It is acknowledged that landscape architecture is linked with the function, process, and structure of the stage. System theory gives a framework to understand and explain the conditions of human relationships with the environment. The understanding of the system is done when the single sets are taken as unit elements, and assembly of features constitutes a whole system (Lawson, 2015). The system is termed as the whole which possesses entities and relationship which works through part’s interrelatedness and possess properties which are not dependent on the components. This theory states that the behavior of every element of systems possesses an effect on the functioning of the whole system. It is also noted that the action of the aspects of the system and its impact on the entire operations are not dependent on one another (Thompson, 2008). lastly, this theory also reveals that systems of elements are interconnected in such a manner that there is no possibility of the formation of independent subgroups. The system theory provides uniform knowledge and is mostly dependent on the fundamental principle of design thinking.

2.5 Socio-economic impact on the landscape architecture designing

According to Simonds & et al. (2016), The building of the architectural landscape always has its effects on the society and communities around it. The increase in population has enhanced the space and structure, which influence the viewpoints of the people towards the designs. It is found that when factors like education, income, and occupation have come up as a major contributor to change the mindset of the people towards the landscape. When the people are educated, then they possess innovative perception towards the whole architecture designs, and there are fewer chances of criticism (Treib, 2011). The educated and occupation -field people, even perceive these activities as a source of economy which can enhance the situation of the market. Moreover, educated people who perform the job and possess a good sum of income even understand the environmental impact of the architectural landscape designing and thus take necessary measures to mitigate the issues associated with designing (Zube & et al., 2010).

The social-economic aspects such as education also assist the architect in applying only those materials in the building systems which do not emit any sorts of toxic substances and gases in its internal environment (Treib, 2011). The effective education and income of the architecture even motivate them to make the usage of energy efficiency technology so that there is lesser usage of energy and conserve the usage of energy. It is stated that when the customers who have ordered the architecture building are educated and possess the good sum of income in its occupation, then those customers will always prefer to apply sustainable systems in its building to minimize the destruction of the environment(Simonds & et al., 2016). However, it is also observed that when there is a lack of education, income, and well-organized occupation of customers, then they do not give emphasis on social and environmental aspects of building but only review upon the design, colors, and interior of the building. This results in instability and unsustainability in the environment (Karmanow, 2009).

Chapter 3: Methodology

Since the research aims to analyze if the experience of a landscape architecture designs changes by a person’s socioeconomic status, so in-depth analysis will be done to attain a solution. This study will consider qualitative research methods that will effectively describe, interpret, contextualize, and even gain in-depth insight regarding the concept. This method makes the usage of non-numerical data and does not focus on statistical data. The secondary data in this study will be collected using journals, books, academic papers, etc. wherein primary data will be gathered using the interview. To attain practical insights, the structured interview will take place with 5 landscape architects of company X. The interview participants will belong to the age group of 20-40 years old, wherein systematic sampling will be used to select the architect. This structured interview will possess a series of pre-determined questions wherein all interviewee's answers will be in the same order. This method will be used to choose the samples as it is cost and time effective and is effective in collecting data (Crowther & Lancaster, 2009). However, business is one of the major disadvantages of this sampling. Interviews will be conducted in an office of Company X, wherein it will last for approximately 20 minutes for each participant. 10 questions will be asked to the respondents wherein 8 questions will be open-ended, and 2 question will be closed ended. Face-to-face interview will be executed wherein answers will be recorded by means of notetaking.

In addition to that, this study will apply interpretivism philosophy to interpret how individuals observe the activities. This philosophy is applied as it makes the usage of diverse approaches for the investigation of the research study. Moreover, since this study apply qualitative methods so inductive approaches are applied, which gathers data and makes the development of theory analyze effective outcomes of data that start from theories. This study will further apply exploratory research so ad to explore the research question, which will help in the practical understanding of the problem. Although, this research design will not provide final and conclusive answers to the research question but will explore the research topic in-depth (Sallee & Flood, 2012). Both primary and secondary data collected will be analyzed by means of the data analysis tool. The collected numeric information, such as survey questionnaire data, has been analyzed using graphs and charts. This method will categorize verbal and behavioral data so as to classify, summarize, and even tabulate the data. Ethical consideration is one of the essential parts of the research wherein, in this research, none of the participants will be subjected to harm. The dignity of the research participants will be respected and will be prioritized wherein full consent will be attained from participants. The privacy of the research participants will be ensured, and research data will be kept at the higher intimate level. All the secondary data will also be collected from the sound and academic sources, and none of the data will be taken from the foreign sources.

Chapter 4: Survey Questionnaire

In this section of the study, the focus has been mainly on analyzing the data that has been collected from the questionnaire survey with target respondents. It needs to be mentioned that as much as 50 respondents have been considered in this research and have been sampled through the random sampling technique from the industry. The data collected has been presented using graphs, charts, and pie and is discussed extensively as a part of gathering relevant data and attaining the objective of the research.

4.1. Data Presentation

In the first question of the survey, the respondents were asked regarding their occupation along with some options to choose from for them. The following responses have been gathered for this particular question.

Occupation of Respondents

It is notable from the graph above that as much as 35% of the respondents are self-employed while another 21% of the people associated in this survey are professionals. In a similar context, public employees and private employees are identical in number for this survey, with figures of around 12% each. Hence, it is apparent of the findings for this question that most of the people are either self-employed or businessperson.

In the next question of the survey, the respondents were regarding their educational qualifications with options such as secondary education, higher secondary educations, and bachelor's and master’s degree, among others. The following responses have been gathered for this particular question.

Educational Qualification

As per the responses acquired and presented in graphs above, it is clear that a high number (32%) of respondents have a bachelor’s degree for themselves while 30% of the respondents told during the survey that they have a master’s degree. Again, in a similar context, as much as 15% of the respondents have claimed that they have a higher secondary degree to their name with another 13% are having a Ph.D. degree according to their responses. Hence, it is clear from the data received that master’s degree and bachelor’s degree are among the essential educational qualification of the respondents that have taken part in this research study.

In the next question of the survey, the respondents were asked regarding the level of their income, for which the following responses have been accumulated. It is noted that a specific range of options has been provided to the respondents for this question as it is complicated to anticipate an exact amount and put it in a questionnaire.

Level of Income

As per the responses provided above, it is clear that as much as 35% of the respondents have an annual income between the range of less than $20000 per annum. This was also the lowest amount option that was provided in the questionnaire. Again, it is to be said that around 30% of the respondents claimed their income to be in the range of $20001 to $50000 per annum. As much as 22% of the respondents have depicted their income to be in the field of $50001 to $100000 per annum. Hence, it is apparent that most of the respondents fall in the income below $20000.

In the next question of the survey, the respondents were asked regarding the size of the household in which they live. For this, the following responses have been acquired and presented graphically.

Size of Household

As per the responses, it is clear that 32% of the respondents live in a house that can accommodate two to three persons and can be deemed as equivalent to a 2 BHK house. In a similar context, around 28% of the respondents claimed that they live in a house with Four to five persons, which can equivalent to a 3BHK apart or home according to the understanding of the researcher. Around 26% of the people noted that they live in a house with More than five persons. Hence, the data acquired shows that most of the respondents reside in medium houses.

In the next question of the survey, the respondents were asked to specify their house, excluding the kitchen and bathroom. Correspondingly, the data acquired for this particular question has been presented graphically hereunder.

Specific Rooms Apart from Kitchen and Bathroom

The data acquired shows that a maximum of (57%) live in a house with two to four rooms apart from the kitchen and bathroom. Again, another 28% has depicted that they live in a house with More than four bedrooms apart from the kitchen and bathroom. Around 15% of the respondents have determined that they live in a house with around one room alone from the kitchen and bathroom. Hence, it is apparent that most of the respondents live in a house with two to four bedrooms.

In the next question of the survey, the respondents were asked about specifying the garden design they prefer in their respective houses. For this, the following responses have been gathered and presented graphically hereunder.

Preference for Garden Design

As per the responses acquired, around 26% of the respondents depicted that they would prefer a naturalized garden in their house backyard. In a similar context, about 22% seen to be favoring a grass garden in their backyard. Another 20% of the respondents are deemed to be preferring Trees in their home garden. It is worthwhile to note that 10% of the respondents prefer Alien cultivated gardens in their backyard, which is quite innovative and surprising.

In the next question of the survey, the respondents were asked about the type of garden they prefer in their respective with two options to choose from. The following responses have been accumulated in this context.

Preference for Garden Design Type

As per the responses gathered in this regard, it has been noted that around 42% prefer their home to be in Westernised Batswana style. In a similar context, 38% determined their preferred choice for garden type to be colonial, while another 20% of respondents have selected Tshimo to be the preferred style of their garden type in the house. Hence, it is clear that Westernised Batswana style and colonial are a quite popular type of gardens among the respondents.

In the next question of the survey, the respondents were asked about the landscape design they prefer with regard to their respective home and garden. For this, the following responses have been accumulated.

Landscape Design Style

As per the responses in the above graph, it is clear that 27% of the respondents prefer to have a Woodland landscape in their homes. Again, 15% of the people determined that they would prefer to have a natural scene in their respective houses. Around 13% of the respondents prefer to have a Butterfly garden in their homes, which is not quite common in terms of personal living and residence of people, and it might also cost higher in terms of management and installation as compared to other forms of house landscape. Again, around 10% of the respondents had a unique preference of Organic garden within their residence. It is unique owing to its high maintenance and complication involved. In a similar context, around 8% prefer to have an English garden style in the landscape of their respective homes. Hence, it is apparent that the choices of the people are quite diverse.

In the next question of the survey, the respondents were asked about their choices or preferences in terms of landscape architecture within their respective household premises. Notably, a diverse range of responses has been gathered for this question, and the following graphical evidence can be an excellent presentation of the same.

landscape Architecture Preferences

As per the data acquired, it is clear that around 26% of the people tend to prefer the urban design in their household backyard since, in the modern age, people are more inclined towards creative and updated models. Again, around 20% of the respondents have depicted that greenways are the way ahead in terms of landscape architecture in individual households. Along with this, 17% of the people have selected roof gardens as their preferred choice, which also shows the likeability of this particular option. 10% of the respondents feel that the green belt style is among the best landscape architecture design in the contemporary era. Hence, the choice of people is quite diverse, and they are also deemed to be well equipped with all the knowledge regarding modern architecture.

In the last question of the survey, the respondents were enquired about the essential services they prefer to have near to their respective households. The following responses have been gathered.

Access to Basic Service

Around 36% of the respondents have preferred to have a hospital, which is 200 meters to their house. This is a sensible choice considering the importance of health and well being in the current era. Another 30% of the respondents have preferred to have school 200 meters to their home, while 28% of the respondents have selected major road transportation 200 meters from their home to be their choice. 6% of the respondents have chosen the option of having rail transportation 200 meters from their home.

4.2. Discussion of Survey Findings with Literature Findings

In this particular section of the study, the focus has been mainly on analyzing the findings of both the literature search and survey findings. This will be helped in meeting the objectives of the research and answering the research question in concern. It is notable that this particular research study largely contributes towards comprehending the impact of socio-economic impacts upon the experience of landscape architectural design. Researches of Motloch (2011) and Vroom (2016) has determined that landscape architecture mainly relates to designing of structure, areas, and landmarks to get a view of aesthetics in social and environmental level. Landscape architecture can be of different forms depending on the scape or regions in which it is situated. While building a particular landscape, it is essential to make sure that the careful, economical, and social balance is being created in the process. The study focuses on understanding the change in experience or impact that socio-financial status-related factors like occupation, education, and income have upon the people. In this context, the survey responses showcases a good comprehension of the social status of the people that is determined based on their income and living standards. As much as 35% of the people involved in this research are self-employed and have quite a unique taste concerning architecture and landscape design. The job and employment status of people also has a significant contribution in terms of determining how people perceive architectural design and landscape.

As per the literature search, it has also been noted that various factors influence architectural design in the present scenario. Some of the studies, including Nasir, Ahmad, and Ahmed (2013), Foster (2010), and Kapper and Chenoweth (2010) has determined that building of architecture is linked with various design elements of a particular structure. This can include aspects such as color, texture, garden, landscape, and others. The size of the structures and windows are termed under the scale of the structure as per the past studies conducted on this subject. In modern-day architecture, the role of design elements is deemed to be extremely prime to assure that people are satisfied with the structures they get in their day to day living. Design elements within modern-day buildings are also essential in context to the uniformity of the overall process of architectural development among the people at large.

Furthermore, studies have added that unity or balance in the design of architecture while designing landscapes has also depicted suitable properties in this particular sector. In this regard, the findings chapter has also described a specific dataset that shows the abilities of people to differ between a diverse range of designs. 32% of people with bachelor’s degree has taken part in this research study, while 30% claimed to be holding the master’s degree. Educational qualification of people is deemed to be important in the field of architecture as it helps in understanding design, shapes, and scale differently. It is also noted that educational qualification is essential to understand the difference between right and wrong in terms of design, scale, and idea of a particular architecture. Educational qualification is also an essential element to provide an understanding with regard to the choice that people make in terms of architectural designs as numerous technical elements are linked with such knowledge. Hence, the impact of educational qualification associated with landscape architecture is quite apparent in this context.

Past researches of Lawson (2015), Zube & et al. (2010), and Thompson (2008) have suggested that there are different methods of designing that exits within the industry of architecture landscaping. Most notably, the studies have mentioned system modeling; environmental relations, along with anthropometric analogies, are among the significant methods of designing that is prevalent within the industry. Each of the designs is made with a specific objective to evaluate models of different kinds that are in use within this industry sector. Each of the methods mentioned above has its own set of comprehensions and help in understanding or exploring a particular element of architectural design. In this regard, various factors have been discussed in terms of designing architecture and landscape within the survey findings of this research. The respondents were enquired about different sorts of designs that they would prefer in their respective houses or space. Most people with two or three rooms house has responded along with master and bachelor’s degree has provided their opinion regarding different design elements. As much as 26% of the respondents have noted that they would prefer a naturalized garden design within their respective residence. 22% of the respondents have shown or discussed their preference for having grass in their garden. In terms of the types of the type of gardens preferred, the respondents have claimed that Westernised Batswana style and colonial garden style are most attractive to have in their designs. This also shows that people need to have proper knowledge regarding the plans that are in extensive use. This can be knowledge regarding elements of ideas or the designs of the overall garden or a particular space in concern. Apart from education, the role of income level is also deemed to be important in the architectural landscape. Most notably, the people that have taken part in the research study within the survey process are well-earning people and people living in a proper house with three or four rooms apart from the kitchen and bathroom. These are information that presents an understanding of the social positioning of a particular individual, and it further depicts his/her capacity of affordability. These aspects also enable individuals first to understand a specific design and then expect a particular service from companies based on their social status and income level. When the respondents were given different design elements for the architectural landscape, they had the knowledge or the ideas to select what they need. Also, income, education as well as social status are equally important and influencing factors in the choice made by people towards architectural designs.

Chapter 5: Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

This study is regarding Landscape architecture, which design landmarks, structures, and public areas to attain required socio-cultural and environmental results. It had been analyzed that various factors affect architectural designs such as proportion, colors, scale, contrast, and unity. The architect of the landscape is giving significant attention to the client’s needs. This study has analyzed that there are different methods of designing landscape architecture, which includes anthropometric analogies, system modeling, and environmental relation. The anthropometric techniques are applied in landscape architecture’s designing, wherein environmental relation methods make the usage of plants and planning tools. This study has further explained system theory, wherein it explained regarding distant perspective to landscape and attain landscape objectives. It had been analyzed that this theory reviews the conditions of human relationships along with the environment. This theory even explains that the element’s behavior upon the system has a direct impact on the whole system. It had further been analyzed from this study that the building of the architectural landscape possesses its effects on the community and society. Various socio-economic impacts are affecting the designing of landscape architecture. It had been reviewed that education, occupation, and income are found to be the main contributor to the changing of the people’s mindset regarding landscape. It had been analyzed from the whole study that when the client is educated than they possess different perceptions towards the architectural designs wherein they would prefer to use innovative and sustainable technology rather than using traditional techniques of building designs. Further, this study has analyzed that job-oriented people even had different perceptions regarding the map as they had money to spend on designing. Since designing the architectural building needs a larger sum of money, the job-oriented are capable of paying that source of money upon these activities as compared to unemployed people. The occupation is a factor that not only assists the people to attain cash but also provides power to the people to apply new and innovative technology in its building. It is further analyzed that those people who are educated and possess excellent income occupations even have consciousness regarding their social status. This, in turn, make these people stay conscious regarding their situation wherein architectural building plays a significant role in enhancing one’s condition. Although it cannot be stated that uneducated, unemployed, and lower-income people do not possess an interest in the innovative sustainable building. Still, it becomes hard for them to fulfill their financial needs. In such a contrast, people generally emphasize color and variations of the building, but sustainability is not considered. It can thus be stated after reviewing the whole study that income, occupation, and education have a direct impact upon the landscape architecture design change. This study can be concluded that since people spend a considerable amount of money upon healthy diets and other necessary activities, spending of the funds on landscape architecture building is quite robust for those people who do not possess money. The ones who have extra spending money could only think regarding sustainable design.

5.2 Recommendation

Since there is direct relationship between the physical surrounding and the people who make and use them, so it is essential for government to recognize the environmental problems associated with architectural designing. It is recommended that individuals and agencies who are associated with preservation of the natural and built environment should be aware regarding the need of sustainable building during landscape architecture. It is further recommended that decision makers should include environmental psychologists to give advice due to its understanding between link between people and place. It is stated that merging of the thoughts and ideas of psychologists assist the architecture and other people linked with the work to find a link between attitudes, values and behavior of the individuals. Such knowledge would assist the architect in successful planning, designing and management of the environment.

Since, it is analyzed that education is highly required in changing the perception of the people towards the architecture building, government should enhance the opportunity for educating people. Moreover, one subject should be included regarding the sustainable environmental architectural designing so that people analyze the importance of it since their early stage. Since, occupation is considered as another socio-economic factor which affects the experience and perception of the people towards the landscape architecture, it is essential for the government to increase the job opportunity. These could help the people to stay employed and earn higher amount of money to be spend in the architectural work. lastly, it is also stated that awareness program should be set, and every small and bigger landscape architect should be trained and aware regarding sustainable landscape architecture so that every people make innovative architectural landscape designs.

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5.3 Future scope

Although, this study is successful in analyzing the research data, but this study would have been more effective if the researcher would have applied interview as data collection methods rather than survey. The interview findings would have given relevant and more precise data. Moreover, interview is stronger tool the questionnaire for the researcher to explore the research topic. The researcher should even take care of the ethics while collecting the data from the interview participants and should not misuse their personal information. In addition to that, it is also stated that since researcher have not applied time management skill in this research study, it was exceedingly difficult for the researcher to complete the study on time. Thus, it is state that researcher should manage time and work effectively by making timetable. Lastly, it is also reviewed that since researcher faced issues due to higher costs of secondary data so in its future research, it should ask monetary assistance from the university and analyze the data effectively.

References

Crowther, D., & Lancaster, G., 2009. Research Methods A concise introduction to research in management an Oliver, P., 2003. The Student’s Guide to Research Ethics. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Foster, K., 2010. Becoming a Landscape Architect. John Wiley and Sons, Inc, New Jersey.

Kapper, T. and Chenoweth, R., 2010. ‘Landscape Architecture and Societal Values’. Landscape Journal, Vol. no. 19, No. 2, pp. 149–155.

Karmanow, D., 2009. Feeling the landscape: Six psychological studies into landscape experience. Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands.

Murphy, M.D., 2015. Landscape architecture theory. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.

Motloch, J., 2011. Introduction to landscape design. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Nasir, R., Ahmad, S. and Ahmed, A., 2013. Physical Activity and Human Comfort Correlation in an Urban Park in Hot and Humid Conditions. Procedia—Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. No. 105, No. 2, pp. 598-609.

Simonds, J.O. & et.al., 2016. Landscape Architecture: A Manual of Environmental Planning & Design, Companies. Inc McGraw-Hill.

Lawson, B., 2015. How designers think: the design process demystified (4th ed.). Oxford, Great Britain: Architectural Press.

Sallee, M. W. & Flood, J. T., 2012. Using Qualitative Research to Bridge Research, Policy and Practice. Theory into Practice, Vol. No. 51, No. 2, pp. 137-144.

Thompson, I., 2008. Ecology, Community and Delight. Sources of values in landscape architecture. London & New York: Taylor & Francis.

Treib, M., 2011. Meaning in Landscape Architecture and Gardens. Abingdon and New York: Routledge.

Vroom, M., 2016. Lexicon of garden and landscape architecture. Basel, Boston, Berlin: Birkhauser

Zube, E., & et al., 2010. "Landscape perception: research, application and theory." Landscape planning Vol. No. 1982, No. 9, pp. 1-33.


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