Identifying the current global scenario in respect to HIV among teenagers

Abstract

This study has been conducted on one of the most talked about topic at the current scenario and that is “How Effective is Condom in Preventing HIV Spread among Teenagers”. Healthcare dissertation help is used as a source to delve deeper into this pressing issue. During this study, the special concentration has been provided on UK so that the study can be conducted in a concise manner. In order to achieve the aim, the study has tried to identify the current scenario of teenage HIV in UK. The study has used the primary as well as the secondary data.

In the literature review of the study, it has been identified that the global scenario in context of teenage HIV is at very danger point. The literature review has indicated that the number of HIV affected teenagers is in the increasing trend. The study has analysed and stated that the HIV affected teenagers are increasing in number because the teenagers are less aware of the use of condom during the time of intercourse. The doctors have also suggested that condom is one of the most effective measures that can protect the people from HIV.

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In the data analysis, the study has identified that most of the teenagers who have taken part in the survey method are male and they are not completely aware of the use of condom. They are also not free with their parents and due to that they do not talk about this problem with their parents. Moreover, most of them never go through a HIV test. However, the doctors in UK have taken several helpful steps to protect the people.

The study has successfully met all the objectives and aim. At the end of the study, some recommendations have been provided. In the recommendation part, the study has suggested that the teenagers must use condom and the authorities in schools and colleges must come forward to fight against this growing problem.

Acknowledgement

Preparing this research paper was a great experience in my life. This research has improved my knowledge over the current scenario regarding HIV. At the same time, the research has also increased my analytical skills. I am thankful and want to convey my regards to my supervisor who helped me at every step of the study. At the same time, I would also thank to everyone who have contribute their time in this research.

Chapter 1- Introduction

This research has concentrated on one of the most emerging area of discussion at current scenario. The topic based on which the research has been done is “How Effective is Condom in Preventing HIV Spread among Teenagers”. In order to make the study more concise and easier, the focus has been made only on UK. The aim and objectives are the research have been stated below:

Aim and objectives of the study

This study has aimed to identify and analyse critically the effectiveness of condom in preventing the teenagers from HIV. This primary aim of the study has been achieved by meeting the following objectives:

  • To identify the extent to which the teenagers in UK are aware of HIV and its effects
  • To identify the extent to which the teenagers in UK are suffering from HIV
  • To identify and analyse how far the teenagers in UK are aware of the positive effects of condom in context the HIV protection
  • To provide some recommendations to the teenagers regarding the protection from HIV

Research questions

The questions that the research has followed are as follows:

  • How far the teenagers in UK are aware of the effects of HIV?
  • What are the reasons for which the teenagers in UK are suffering from the problem of HIV?
  • How far the teenagers in UK aware about the impacts of condoms on HIV protection?
  • What are the measures that the government of UK has taken to prevent the teenage-HIV?
  • What is the best possible way to protect the teenagers from HIV?

Significance of the study

At present scenario, HIV is one of the major health issues in most of countries in the world. In early days, the disease was limited to the adults, but in the recent era, it has spread over the teenagers also. HIV is one of the deadly diseases that has no such cure (Adam 2016). Though many times the doctors suggest some protective measures to get protection from HIV. This study has focused one of the protective measures of HIV. As in this study the detailed and critical research has been done on the effectiveness of condom in protecting HIV, it will be very useful at this current period. The teenagers as well as their parents will get to know about the practical scenario. At the same time, the research has also tried to increase the consciousness of the teenagers and their parents about the usability of condom by providing proper evidence and knowledge. This research can be considered as a health promotion activity.

Areas covered in literature review

The literature review portion of the study has covered some specific areas of discussion. In the literature review, the focus has been made on the current global scenario related to HIV among teenagers. At the same time, the literature review has also identified and compared the percentages of teenage-HIV in different countries. Along with these, the literature review has discussed regarding the steps taken by the governments of countries to prevent HIV spread among teenagers. At last, the literature review has discussed about some common measures that doctors suggest for getting protection from HIV.

Background of the chosen topic

Identifying the current global scenario in respect to HIV among teenagers

At present, HIV is the most critical and non-curable disease in the world. HIV has been spread all over the world. According to Zuma et al. (2016), HIV is spreading very quickly among the young people and the number of affected people is increasing day-by-day. Teenage HIV can be noticed mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. As per the statistics, in 2015, there were 670000 young people including teenagers (age group between 15-24 years) affected by this deadly disease in Sub-Saharan Africa (Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov 2017). Among these 670000 people, 250000 were only the teenagers. However, the situation is not much different in the other countries (Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov 2017). The statistics shows that in every year 4 million teenagers are added in the list of HIV affected teenagers. 29% HIV affected people in the world are the teenagers and this percentage is growing every day (Avert.org 2017). In this context, Knopf et al. (2017) added that between 2005 to 2012, the teenage HIV has increased by 50%. Therefore, it can be said that current scenario in respect to teenage HIV is very poor. The people must be aware about the causes of HIV, so that they can avoid the deadly disease.

Steps taken by the governments in countries to prevent HIV spread among teenagers

The governments in different countries have come forward to fight against the issue of teenage HIV. In the year of 2015, a global strategy has been launched to end the HIV spread by 2030 (D-scholarship.pitt.edu 2017). However, Adam (2016) argues that the effectiveness of the strategy depends on the teenagers, who are getting affected by this disease and it is difficult to identify how much the teenagers are careful about this matter. The government in the countries have organized awareness campaign to educate the teenagers and their parents about HIV. The government of Kenya has focused on seven strategies to fight against HIV and these are – STI diagnosis and management, preventing the HIV transmission from the mother to the child, proper use of condom, abstinence, counselling and testing HIV at regular interval, communicating behavioral change, supplying safe blood and providing injection safety (Data.unicef.org 2017). Other than Kenya, the governments in different eastern and western countries have started sex education and at the same time, the governments in many countries have recruited a group of people for taking care of this matter. CDC in United States has taken High-Impact Prevention approach to reduce the spread of HIV (CDC.gov 2017). The government in UK has ordered the schools to take part in the HIV prevention programs.

Identifying doctors’ suggestions to prevent teenage HIV

Doctors in different countries suggest some useful ways to prevent HIV. These ways are as follows:

Avoiding use of drugs – The doctors always suggest that people must avoid using drugs especially those drugs, which are injected. Doctors says that avoiding drug use may not stop HIV but people can reduce the chances of getting affected by HIV by avoiding the drug injection and if anyone injects drug, then that person must not share the injecting equipment like, needle, cotton or syringe (Knopf et al. 2017).

HIV test – The doctors suggest that during pregnancy, mothers must get the HIV test to prevent their children from HIV. Mothers may also use the anti-HIV medicines to prevent the disease (Adam 2016).

Use of condom – The doctors also suggest to use condom during intercourse. According to many doctors, this is one of the basic HIV preventive measures. In case of teenage HIV, it has been identified that many teenagers have been affected by HIV due to unsafe intercourse. Therefore, using condom is the best way to prevent HIV spread (Zuma et al. 2016).

Avoiding tattoo – Getting tattoos in the body may also cause HIV infection. Doctors say that if a person, who is giving the tattoo uses the same needle, which he or she has used to giving tattoo to a HIV affected person, then the other persons may get affected by HIV. Therefore, avoiding these tattoos may prevent HIV to some extent (Knopf et al. 2017).

Avoiding tattoo

Chapter 2 – Methodology

Methodology of selecting the research topic

This research has been done on one of the most emerging social issues that is HIV among teenagers. The research topic that has been developed after conducting detailed analysis on the existing literature. At first, the study has been done on the global scenario in context the HIV among the teenagers. While reviewing on this particular area, it was identified that the global scenario is quite bad. HIV is spreading very quickly among the teenagers. As this critical situation was identified, the literature review moved towards the identification of the steps that the governments in different countries are taking to fight against HIV. At the same time, it was also important to review the suggestions provided by the doctors to prevent HIV. While reviewing the doctors’ suggestions and governments’ steps, it was identified that both (doctors and governments) have suggested that use of condom is an effective way of preventing HIV. Identifying this fact, it was observed that it is important to analyse how far condom is effective in preventing HIV spread among teenagers.

Overview of the research strategy

This research has been done based on the positivism philosophy. The positivism philosophy has been selected because it helped to conduct the study in a well-defined structure (Baskerville and Wood-Harper 2016). At the same time, positivism philosophy allowed performing the quantitative analysis of research data (Robson and McCartan 2016). The study has followed the deductive research approach because that has required less time and deductive approach was easier to follow.

As the study, has followed the deductive research approach, while reviewing the existing literature, the research selected some articles and analysed each article based on the previously set inclusion and exclusion criteria. The inclusion criteria that the study set before starting the literature review includes the followings:

As the study As the study 1

The articles, which met the above-mentioned inclusion criteria of the research have been selected for the literature review of the study. On the other hand, the study also set some exclusion criteria, which helped to exclude the articles, which are not relevant for this study. The exclusion criteria set by the research were as follows:

The articles, which met the above-mentioned

After considering the above-mentioned inclusion and exclusion criteria, the study found three main articles, which met the inclusion criteria and free from the exclusion criteria. These three articles are as follows:

After considering the above After considering the above 1

The above-mentioned three articles were the most relevant articles for this research work. Initially, the research selected total 7 articles among which 4 articles were rejected as those articles did not meet the inclusion criteria and some of the exclusion criteria were presented in those articles. Finally, following the deductive approach of research, the above-mentioned three articles were selected and the literature review has been done. These three articles included qualitative as well as quantitative data and information. The statistical data set was available in the articles, which helped to conduct the literature review by addressing the aim and objective of the study.

During this study, the primary data has been also used. In order to collect the primary data, the survey method has been followed. The survey has been done with 50 teenagers and 10 doctors in UK. The survey questionnaire has been distributed through Gmail. The primary data of the study has been analysed with the help of quantitative data analysis method. The quantitative method was selected because it helped to analyse the data in scientific way and the interpretation of the result was easier in this method (Cleophas and Zwinderman 2017).

Ethical considerations

Maintaining the ethics is very important for a research (St John et al. 2016). During this research, in order to maintain the research ethics, the data and information have been gathered from the valid and relevant sources. At the same time, the data has been analysed by the authenticate data analysis tool. On the other side, the study has also maintained the confidentiality of the survey participants. Moreover, before starting the research, permission has taken from the respective authority.

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Limitation of the research

This research has faced several limitations. The major limitation of the study was the unavailability of useful data. The data before 2010 was available but data after 2010 and related to the HIV among teenagers was very limited. Along with this, the data related to the use of condoms in preventing HIV was very limited. Apart from these, the available time for this study was very short, which limited the scope for better study.

Chapter 3 – Analysis of Evidence

This chapter of the research has aimed to analyse the evidences to address the findings in the literature review and to meet the aim and objectives of the study. At the same time, this chapter has also addressed the research problem through the analysis of the evidences. In order to gather the evidences, the study has conducted the primary research through survey. The findings or evidences of the survey are stated and analysed below:

Evidences from the primary research

Survey with the teenagers

What is the area you live in?

What is the area you live What is the area you live in?

Findings and analysis

The table and diagram shown above are indicating that most of the respondents in the survey belong from the London area. The percentage of the respondents who are from the London are is 48%. On the other hand, there are 14% of the respondents who are from the Kent area, 22% of the respondents are from Glasgow area and 16% of the people from the Yorkshire area. This is indicating that the findings of the survey are highly influenced by the teenagers in London area because the number of teenagers from London area is highest.

Q2. What is your age group?

The above-mentioned table and diagram is showing that most of respondents belong from the age group of 15 to 17 years. The percentage of this group of respondents is 40%. Apart from this, there are 32% of the respondents, who belong from age group of 18 to 19 years. There are also 28% of the respondents who belong from the age group of 12 to 14 years. The above results are indicating that the most of the participants of the survey are mature enough to understand the value of research.

Q2. What is your age group? Q2. What is your age group

Q3. What is your gender?

Q3. What is your gender? Q3. What is your gender

Findings and analysis

How far are you aware of HIV?

As per the above table and diagram, most of the research participants are male. The percentage of male participants is 62% and the percentage of female participants is 38%. This means there is huge gap between the number of male respondents and female respondents. At the same time, it can also be said that maximum portion of the research findings are influenced by the male. On the other side, this finding are also indicating that the males are more interested to take part into the HIV related survey because they are more aware about the effects of HIV.

How far are you aware of HIV?

How far are you aware of HIV? How far are you aware of HIV

Findings and analysis

In the above table and diagram, it can be seen that the percentage of respondents, which have good knowledge or who are fully aware of the matter of HIV is only 8%. There are 22% if the respondents, who have required knowledge or who are aware of HIV is 22%. The percentage of respondents, who are not at all aware of HIV is 26% and the percentage of respondents who are aware of HIV to some extent is 44%.

In the analysis of the above results or findings, it can be said that most of the respondents or teenagers in UK are not completely aware of the matter of HIV. They have knowledge regarding the problem to some extent, which is not enough in this dangerous situation. The percentage of the fully aware respondents is very low at the same time, the percentage of the respondents, who come under the category of ‘aware’ is also much lower than the percentage of the respondents, who are not aware. This results are indicating the negative situation in UK in respect to the awareness among the teenagers regarding HIV. As per the literature review, the governments in different countries have under taken several awareness campaigns to make the people aware of the fact of HIV. However, the results are disclosing the fact that the steps taken by the governments are not effective enough.

Have you ever go through HIV test?

Have you ever go through HIV test? Have you ever go through HIV test

The table and diagram in the above are showing the shocking result. The diagram is indicating that 82% respondents of the survey have never go through HIV test. There are 18% of the respondents have said that they have go through the HIV test. This means most of the respondents, who are also representing the whole teenagers group in UK never had a HIV test.

If the above results are analysed critically, it can be said as most of the respondents have never go through the HIV test, it means they have never faced the problem of HIV. On the other hand, it is also true that without proper checking no one can understand whether he or she has HIV or not. As per the literature review of the study, the doctors suggest to c\go through proper HIV check up to prevent from HIV. However, the practical results are showing the different situation, which is not acceptable. The teenagers must go through the HIV test and they must influence their friends and family members to do the same.

How far do you believe that using condom can protect teenagers from HIV?

How far do you believe that using condom can protect teenagers from HIV? How far do you believe that using condom can protect teenagers from HIV

The percentages shown in the above diagram are indicating that most of the teenagers or respondents remained neutral while answering this question. The percentage of the people, who remained neutral is 32%, which is higher than the other categories. There are 22% and 14% of the respondents in the survey, who believe as well as strongly believe that the use of condoms can protect the teenagers from HIV. However, there are also 20% and 12% of the people, who disbelieved that use of condoms can protect the teenagers from HIV.

In the analysis of the above findings, it can be stated that most of the respondents or teenagers in UK are confused about the usability of condoms in protecting the teenagers from HIV. Due to this, maximum respondents have selected the option ‘neutral’. Moreover, the percentage of the respondents who believe and strongly believe is not much higher than the respondents who disbelieve and strongly disbelieve the same. As per the literature review, the doctors believe that condom is one of the best way to protect the teenagers from HIV. This means, in practical world, the teenagers are not aware of the positive effects of using condoms in context to protecting a person from the deadly disease of HIV.

Have you ever talked about the increasing problem of HIV with your parents and friends?

Have you ever talked about the increasing problem of HIV with your parents and friends? Have you ever talked about the increasing problem of HIV with your parents and friends

The above findings are indicating that 52% of the respondents or teenagers in UK do not talk about the increasing problem of HIV with their parents or friends. However, there are 28% of the respondents, who talk sometimes about the problem of HIV with their friends and family members and there are also 20% of the respondents, who talk about the problem many times with their parents and friends.

Analysing the above results in detail, it can be stated that the teenagers in UK do not feel free to talk about the increasing problem of HIV with their parents. However, as per the literature review, proper awareness is very important to reduce the spread of HIV. If the teenagers do not discuss about the problem of HIV with their parents, then they will not be able to understand the real problem properly. The parents of the teenagers must provide the scope to their children so that they can freely discuss about the problem and can protect themselves from the dangerous impact of HIV.

What measures other than condom that you believe can protect you and your friends from HIV?

What measures other than condom that you believe can protect you and your friends from HIV? What measures other than condom that you believe can protect you and your friends from HIV

The percentages shown in the above diagram and table are indicating that most of the teenagers in UK believe that they can avoid HIV from avoiding the used needles. The percentage of such teenagers is 42%. There are also 34% of the total respondents, who believe that they can avoid HIV by avoiding the harmful drugs. 12% of the respondents support regular blood test and rest 12% support avoiding tattoos.

In the analysis of the above findings, it can be stated that the teenagers in UK have the knowledge regarding the different ways to avoiding HIV. The results are also indicating that the findings are supporting the literature review in this context. However, how far the teenagers the really aware of the alternative ways of avoiding HIV and how far they are in practice of these measures are matter of more investigation.

Survey with the doctors in UK

Survey with the doctors in UK Survey with the doctors in UK?

How far do you believe that HIV spread is increasing in UK?

How far do you believe that HIV spread is increasing in UK?

The above findings are indicating that 80% of the doctors believe that the condom is the best effective measure that can prevent HIV. Among this 80%, 40% of the doctors strongly believe this fact. However, there is also 2% of the doctors, who do not believe that the condom is the best option to save the teenagers from HIV.

If the findings are critically analysed, it can be stated that as the doctors are supporting the use of condom for preventing HIV, the people must use this measure to protect themselves. The government should also promote the condom so that people become more aware of the use of it. At the same time, it is the responsibility of the teenagers also to take preventive measure like, using condom while involving in intercourse. If the teenagers do not come forward in this matter, then no awareness campaign or suggestion can help them or protect them from this deadly disease.

What steps you are taking to save the teenagers from HIV?

What steps you are taking to save the teenagers from HIV? What steps you are taking to save the teenagers from HIV?

In the analysis of the above findings, it can be said that the HIV spread is really increasing in the United Kingdom. In case of any disease, doctors can give the view of the actual situation in the country and in case of this matter, as the doctors are saying that the disease is increasing, it indicates the real fact. The answers of the doctors in survey also matches with the findings in the literature review of the study. Therefore, the government as well as the people in the society must come forward to protect their children as well as themselves from the harmful effects of HIV.

In the analysis of the above findings, it can be said that the doctors in UK are taking part in to the process of HIV prevention. The doctors are much aware of their responsibilities to the people of the country. The steps taken by the doctors in UK are demand high appreciation. However, now it is the time for the people in the country to support the doctors properly, so that the country can fight against the disease.

How far do you believe that parents should discuss regarding HIV with their children?

How far do you believe that parents should discuss regarding HIV with their children? How far do you believe that parents should discuss regarding HIV with their children

The findings are indicating that 50% of the doctors strongly believe that the parents must discuss about HIV with their children. 40% of the doctors also believe that the discussion between parents and children is very important for fighting against the deadly disease of HIV. However, 10% of the doctors were neutral.

Analysing the findings, it can be stated that parents-children discussion regarding HIV is very important because parents can provide the best guidance to their children. They know their children well, so they can understand which step will be the most effective step that can protect their children from HIV. Moreover, if the parents become free with their children, then the children will also feel free to share their problems with their parents. This is the best way to aware the children regarding HIV.

Discussion

The findings and analysis portion of the study are disclosing the fact that the teenagers in UK are not fully aware of the current dangerous scenario of the world in respect to HIV or AIDS. As the parents have not come forward to make their children aware of this danger fact, it is normal that the teenagers are not much bothered about the situation. However, this may cause big issue to the teenagers. Moreover, the teenagers are also not aware of the protective measures of HIV. Most of the teenagers are confused whether the condom is effective for reducing the spread of HIV or not. This type of confusion must be removed from the mindset of the teenagers. On the other side, the above findings are also indicating that the measures taken by the government of UK to make the people aware about HIV are not effective enough to create consciousness among the people.

However, the findings in the study are also indicating that some of the teenagers in United Kingdom are informed about the alternative measures to protect a person from HIV or AIDS. However, the percentages of teenagers, who support regular blood test and avoiding tattoos are very less. This means, at this point, the doctors and the government have to come forward to make the teenagers aware of the fact that they may get affected by HIV if they make tattoos on their bodies. However, it is very important rather duty of the elders as well as parents to keep their children safe by providing them required information and discussing about HIV and its effects and its measures with their children.

The survey with the doctors have clearly indicated that the doctors in UK are very responsible towards their duty. The doctors have taken several effective steps to protect the teenagers as well as the adult people from the harmful effects of HIV or AIDS. From the answers of the doctors in survey, it has been cleared about that using condom is very important while involving in intercourse. The teenagers must make a habit of using condom at the time of involving in the sexual activities. At the same time, the findings have also indicated that parents-children discussion can protect the teenagers from HIV in a better way.

The findings in the study are matched with the literature review of it. In the literature review, it has been identified that doctors suggest to use condom to take protection from HIV spread and the findings have indicated that some of the teenagers are aware about this fact. This means, these teenagers are conscious about their health. At the same time, the teenagers are also aware of the alternative measures to get protection of HIV to some extent and these alternative measures are also suggested by the government in the literature review. This means, the findings of the primary data analysis have supported the literature review of the study.

Chapter 4 – Emerging Themes

In the previous chapter, the evidence has been gathered through primary data analysis. Based on that evidence, here, in this chapter, the key emerging themes are developed. These emerging themes are discussed below:

Emerging trends regarding the HIV awareness among the teenagers

The findings of the primary data of the study are indicating that in the at this present situation, the teenagers are not completely aware of the fact that HIV is a danger for their life and they are not able to protect themselves properly by taking right measures. The teenagers in current scenario are not fully aware of the effective measures to get rid of this problem. The teenagers are not conscious about the use of condom, which is the most effective precaution to stop HIV spread among the people. However, the findings in the study are also indicating that the teenagers will be affected by the negative effects of HIV because the awareness is spreading among the teenagers very slowly because teenagers do not feel free to talk about HIV and the protective measures with their parents or family members.

The findings of the study are also indicating that the number of HIV affected teenagers is increasing day-by-day and it will grow further if the teenagers remain less conscious about the reality. The teenagers must consult with their parents or any elder person, if they face any problem related to HIV. However, at current scenario, the parents do not encourage their children to talk about this matter. During the survey, it has been identified that most of the survey participants were male and the findings have indicated that the girls are less aware regarding HIV. Due to this, it can be noticed that recently, the number of HIV effected girls is increasing.

Emerging trends regarding the use of condom among the teenagers in UK

The findings in the previous chapter as well as the literature review chapter have indicated that the awareness among the teenagers regarding the use of condom is very limited. Analysing these findings, it can be stated that unprotected sexual activities or intercourse is one of the major reasons behind the quick spread of HIV. In the survey, it has been identified that most of the survey participants have selected the option “neutral”, which indicates that they are confused about where condom is effective for preventing HIV or not. Therefore, it can be said that if these teenagers involve in the sexual activities or intercourse, then they may not use condom to protect themselves from the effects of HIV. However, in the literature review, it has been identified that the doctors have suggested that the use of condom is the most effective measure for preventing HIV. Therefore, the trend that can be seen the current scenario is very disappointing because unprotected sexual activities is one of the main reasons behind the HIV spread, but the teenagers are not aware about the most effective prevention measure that is use of condom.

Emerging trends regarding the steps taken by doctors

The findings in the previous chapter have shown that the doctors in UK are taking several steps to save the teenagers and the other people from HIV. The findings are indicating that the doctors are not only trying to educate the people and teenagers regarding the impact of HIV and reasons behind the deadly disease by taking part into the awareness campaigns that are arranged by the government of the country. At the same time, the doctors are also arranging the private awareness campaign, which are sponsored by the local nursing homes.

Apart from these steps, the most vital steps that the doctors are taking in UK is the providing free condoms at the hospitals and nursing homes. This is one of the most important as well as effective trend that has been started by the doctors. According to the doctors, distribution of free condoms helps to prevent the poor people and the teenagers from HIV very effectively. The doctors in UK also believe that by distributing free condoms will create a habit of using condom among the teenagers. The teenagers will be interested to know the positive effects of condom. Along with the free condom distribution, the doctors have also started the free counselling sessions especially for the teenagers and these sessions are only focused on the matter of HIV.

Emerging trends regarding the level of STDs (Sexually Transmitted Diseases)

The findings in the previous chapter have clearly shown that the teenagers are very casual about the facts of HIV. The literature review of the study has indicated that the number of HIV affected teenagers is increasing which indicates that nowadays, teenagers are more involved in sexual activities or intercourse. As the teenagers are not fully aware of the use of condom, there are more chances that the STDs or Sexually Transmitted Diseases will increase more among the teenagers. HIV will spread due to the sexual activities without condom, the level of teenage pregnancy will increase, and from the mother, the child will also be affected by HIV. This means a circle will be created shortly if the proper protective measures are not taken at the right time.

It is expected that the parents of these teenagers will be more conscious and will come forward to fight against this problem. If this not happens then, the consequence will be very dangerous. As there is no such medicine that can protect the teenagers or any people from the effects of STDs, death may come to the teenagers and the STD affected people. However, it can be expected that in the coming future, the schools, colleges and other social welfare organisations will be more involved in the awareness programmes.

Emerging trends regarding the campaigns by the government

The analysis done in the previous chapter has cleared out that the teenagers in the UK are not much aware of the fact condom is one of the most effective HIV prevention measures. However, they know the fact that HIV may cause due to the use of used needle or tattoos. This is good that the teenagers in the UK are at least aware of the reasons to some extent. Therefore, it is expected that the government of the country will take more aggressive steps to control the situation in a better way. The steps that the government of UK may take shortly to make the people especially the teenagers aware about the reasons and effective prevention measures for HIV.

The government’s reports indicate that the surveys are conducted by the government of UK to know facts and figures regarding the HIV affected people. However, the current situation is indicating that shortly the government of UK will conduct some surveys to identify the HIV awareness percentage among the teenagers in the country. If the government takes this step, then the government will have updated report regarding the awareness and according to that steps will be taken. Another trend that has been already started by the UK government that is providing television advertisement to make the people aware about the HIV spread in UK. The government as well as many people believe that television advertisement is a very effective medium for creating and spreading awareness among the people. Many people also believe that through television advertisement, the government of the country will not only aware the teenagers but their parents and family members also regarding HIV.

Apart from survey and television advertisements, the government of the country has also started providing free check-up facility to the people in the rural areas in UK. The government is taking this steps because it has been identified that the rural people in UK believe more on what the doctor says. Therefore, if they hear from the doctors regarding the HIV, then they will be more conscious about the matter. Along with these steps, the government of UK is conducting the normal awareness campaigns, which are not completely effective, but effective to certain extent.

In order to remove the confusion of the teenagers and attract them towards the HIV awareness campaigns, the government of the country must take some strategies that are attractive to the teenagers. The government can use the strategies like, conducting road shows regarding HIV and protection; the government can be aware the teenagers through movie halls that are before starting the movies in the hall the awareness related advertisements can be shown. Along with these two strategies, the government can mandate the HIV awareness program in the schools and colleges. It is expected that as the doctors are emphasising more on the use of condom for HIV protection, the government will focus on this fact also in the awareness campaigns.

Chapter 5 - Conclusion and Recommendation

Conclusion

In this research, it has been identified that the current situation of the world in respect to the spread of HIV is very dangerous. The HIV spread is increasing every day and the governments of most of the countries are failure to protect the people from the effects of HIV. The situation is worst in case of HIV among teenagers. The literature review of the study has also presented some statistical data that indicates the critical situation in UK as well as in other areas of the world. However, in order to identify the extent to which this research has achieved the aim and met the objectives, it is important to link the objectives with the findings of the study. The objective linking is shown below:

Objective linking

To identify the extent to which the teenagers in UK are aware of HIV and its effects

In order to meet this particular objective, the questionnaire of the survey included the awareness related question. In the findings of the chapter 3, question number 4 (survey with teenagers), it has been identified that most of the teenagers in UK are not completely aware of HIV. The literature review of the study has also indicated the same thing. The literature review has shown that the number of HIV affected teenagers is increasing in UK and other parts of the world, which indicates that the teenagers are not much aware of the reasons and effects of HIV. The question number 5 in the survey with teenagers has also indicated the same thing. It has been identified that most of the teenagers have not go through HIV test ever, which also indicates the lack of awareness. On the other side, the question number 1 in the survey with doctors has shown that most of the doctors in UK accepted that the HIV spread is increasing in United Kingdom. Therefore, from this, the awareness extent of the teenagers regarding HIV can be understood, which indicates that the objective 1 has been met successfully.

To identify the extent to which the teenagers in UK are suffering from HIV

This objective has been better addressed by the literature review of the study. The literature review of the study has shown that the HIV spread is increasing in the global context. As the HIV is increasing in all over the world, it is affecting the teenagers in UK also. The literature review has indicated that in last few years, the HIV spread has increased by 50% in the world scenario. On the other side, the question number 1 in the survey with doctors has also indicated the same thing that the HIV spread among teenagers in UK is increasing and doctors have also indicated that if the preventive measures are not taken then the problem will grow more in the near future. Hence, it can be said that many teenagers in UK are suffering from HIV. Therefore, the 2nd objective of the study has been met.

To identify and analyse how far the teenagers in UK are aware of the positive effects of condom in context the HIV protection

The survey of the study has helped to high extent to meet this objective of the study. In the findings of the question number 6 in the survey with teenagers, it has been identified that most of the teenagers are confused whether use of condom is effective measure for HIV prevention or not. This indicates that the teenagers are not completely aware of the use of condoms. On the other side, in the question number 3 in the survey with doctors, it has been identified that many doctors in UK are distributing free condom to the teenagers so that they can create a habit of using condom among the teenagers. This also indicate that the teenagers are not completely aware of the use of condom. Hence, the objective 3 has been met.

To provide some recommendations to the teenagers regarding the protection from HIV

In the literature review, it has been identified that the doctors have suggested to use the condom as the most effective measure to get rid of HIV. Apart from that, the doctors have also suggested that the teenagers as well as the adult people must go through regular check-up. The doctors have suggested that the teenagers must avoid tattoos and using harmful drugs. The teenagers must consult with their parents and the parents must create a friendly relationship with their children, so that they can share their problem. Therefore, it can be said that objective 4 has been also met.

Recommendations

The recommendations are given below:

  • Each teenager must use condom while involving in intercourse because it is the most effective measure that can protect them from HIV.
  • The schools and colleges must come forward to protect the teenagers from HIV. The school authorities can start the special mandatory class for the students, where the school authority can arrange an awareness session. At the same time, the school authorities can talk about this matter with the parents of the students regarding this matter.
  • The teenagers must follow the guidelines provided by the doctors. At the same time, they must talk about HIV with their parents and must share if they are facing any problem related to HIV.
  • Parents must provide the scope to their children, so that they feel free to talk about HIV with their parents.

Future scope of the study

This study has focused mainly on UK. Therefore, there is huge scope of conducting study on the other countries also. The future researchers can conduct the study on the same topic but in context to Kenya or South Africa, where the HIV ratio is also high. At the same time, this study has only focused on the teenagers, but future researchers can also conduct the study conserving the HIV among the adults also. Apart from that the future researchers can use this study as a secondary source of data, which can help them in conducting research in a systematic manner by providing several data and information.

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