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Enhancing Inclusive Learning Environments

Introduction

Visual-support based interventions in children suffering from autism or in children with Additional-Support-Needs (ASN), are meant to provide extensive visual assistance through technological systems and cognitive tools, aiding them to enhance their learning, language-production mechanism and communication (Hayes, et al., 2010). Even though such visual supports remain efficient in diminishing many challenges faced by the children with special needs; difficulty is faced in creation, distribution and usage of such system, which adds to time-consumption. Furthermore, in the City-of-Edinburgh, itself, the percentage of families that require Additional-Support-for-Learning (ASL), and with a child having Autism-Spectrum-Disorder (ASD), amounts to 60%, which signifies a large number of children (Additional support for learning: experiences of pupils and those that support them - gov.scot, 2020).

In this aspect the Plan enacted by City-of-Edinburgh-Council, collaboratively with Edinburgh's Speech-and-Language-Therapy-Services, Keycomm and Visual-Support-Services, is noteworthy to mention, namely the Visual-Support-Project or VSP, in terms of its success in using visual-symbol based support within education-system for removing, preventing or alleviating barriers faced by such children in a learning environment (The Visual Support Project (VSP): The structured implementation of visual symbol supports within mainstream schools., 2020). Apart from this, the Scottish Policy's venture for supporting the ASN children, through enhanced rights and by highlighting educational authorities to providing and reviewing pupil requirements on long and short-term basis, is praiseworthy. The policy focuses upon all children facing extra need due to family circumstances, wellbeing, disability, health or learning-environment (Schools: Additional support for learning - gov.scot, 2020).

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The present project-proposal, has been formulated, hence, taking in consideration the aforementioned scenario, focusing upon the children with special needs and how visual-support-systems may place an impact on enhanced communication with them. Several PECS system (Picture-Exchange-Communication-System), apart from the VSP undertaken by the Edinburgh Council, have been extensively discussed throughout the study. The study is meant to highlight the ideas of therapy based inclusive learning, focusing upon development within the selected area for supporting collaborative-practices in an educational environment. In the project-proposal the impact of Visual-support-tools and interventions has been approached and centered around Edinburgh, to identify the practicality and local outcome of the study.

The uniqueness of the proposal lies in the age-group of children taken in consideration, revolving around the toddler age-range of 1 to 3 years. There have been several studies conducted in the past on ASN children, focusing on the age-range of 7-13 year olds, and their educational needs; however studies on the toddler age group still remain less investigated upon, with very few literary evidence and qualitative researches conducted on the same (Literature Review of Pupils with Additional Support Needs, 2020). The present proposal, has attempted to address the research gap hence, by considering the toddler population with Additional-Support-Need (who may or may not have autism), to exhibit visual-support-system's impact on inclusive learning and collaborative practices within the environment.

Background of the study

On the basis of statistics, almost 60% of Edinburgh's families have children requiring Additional-Support-Learning (ASL). The Scottish Government has hence framed an Action-Plan for providing additional-support to such children, towards inclusive learning practices, reviewing it time and again to improve and implement ASL by adopting recommendations. Enhancement of experiences of the young children, who require additional support, remains the prime aim of the Action Plan (Additional support for learning: experiences of pupils and those that support them - gov.scot, 2020). The ASLIG (Additional-Support-for-Learning-Implementation-Group), ensures to deliver the Plan with robust implementation, measuring outcomes, in relation to National-Improvement-Framework, and progress is attempted to be reported by 2021. Collaborating with ADES, COSLA as partners in the Action-Plan, the Government ensures alignment amongst diverse work-streams. The Plan also considers the complete involvement and participation of young people, children, and their families, with respect to ASL based decision-making. Also the Plan aims to develop a National-Measurement-Framework, ensuring that children's aspiration is maintained throughout, for achieving to the maximum extent of learning potential, in terms of additional support. Furthermore the Plan endeavours such that National-Improvement-Framework in this regard, must be routinely revised, following culture of improvement over that of compliance (Additional support for learning: experiences of pupils and those that support them - gov.scot, 2020).

On this regards the VSP was developed by the City Council of Edinburgh, in collaboration with Speech-And-Language-Therapy based services and Visual-Support-Services, using symbol supports, with the aim of removing, preventing, alleviating, challenges in learning scenario and educational environment (The Visual Support Project (VSP): The structured implementation of visual symbol supports within mainstream schools., 2020). Through local evaluation, it was observed that variation existed in provision of AAC (Augmentative-and-Alternative-Communication). The 3-tier based VSP model delivered a coordination based implementation-program for raising awareness, accessibility and practice of visual symbol based supports. The 1st tier is under trial within 5 Edinburgh Schools, each of which received a training-session for entire school; implementation criteria and clarity in roles; resource pack; ongoing guidance regarding tier-1's resource implementation and schedules meetings.

On the basis of this background, the aim and research questions of the present study has been formulated to inculcate inclusive and collaborative learning practices focusing on improved communication of ASN toddlers using visual-support-systems.

Research Aims and Objectives

Research Aim:

The present proposal aims "to critically assess the impact of visual-support-system, in communicating with Additional-support-needs (ASN) toddlers, for enhancing inclusiveness and collaboration in learning environment, at Edinburgh, UK".

Research Objectives:

For carrying the study in the proper direction, aligned with the research Aim, the following objectives have been devised:

(i) to identify visual-support-needs and tools employed for communicating with ASN children

(ii) to assess the impact of visual-support-needs on communication regarding ASN toddler population of Edinburgh

(iii) to identify effective learning tools or techniques for toddlers encouraging vertical and lateral progression

(iv) to enhance practicality and local impact of visual-support-tools corresponding to the Edinburgh population

Research Questions

Q1) What are the visual-support-tools used for enhancing toddler based communication related to ASN children?

Q2) What is the impact of support-tools on improving toddler communication in respect to ASN children?

Q3) What are the most efficient learning tools to enhance ASN children inclusivity at educational setting?

Q4) What is the practicality of visual-support-tools and impact on local families at Edinburgh, UK ?

Rationale

The present Project-Proposal has been formulated to address the prominent issue regarding lack of inclusivity within learning environment, corresponding to the special-needs children population of the City-of-Edinburg, UK. The use of visual-support-needs as a means of enhancing communication with the ASN children, to enhance inclusivity and collaborative learning, has been the prime study focus. On account of the surplus number of families with ASN children(with or without autism), at Edinburgh, the need for visual-support-tools, as means of improving communication, has been highlighted through this proposal. Furthermore, the rationale of the present study lies in drawing focus to the toddler age range (1-3 years) of ASN children population, as because this is an age-group on which previous researches have not focused upon. The research gap is thus addressed in the present proposal, taking in consideration the lacking literary sources and academic research conducted on the toddler age range, in the past.

Hence, the present proposal not only aims to identify the impact and practicality of visual-support systems in enhancing toddler communication of Edinburgh, considering the ASN children; but it also wishes to become a pioneer in the aspect, to serve as a guideline for future researchers, academicians, policy-makers, social-scientists, families of ASN children and caregivers alike to enhance collaborative practices.

Literature Review

Edinburgh-City-Council' and Visual-Support-Plan - VSP

According to Baxter, et al., (2015), Edinburgh's VSP or Visual-Support-Plan, comprises of structured implementation and usage of visual-symbol-support in mainstream schools aimed towards enhanced communication in addition to prevention, removal and alleviation of barriers in communication faced by ASN children; in collaboration with Edinburgh Council, Keycomm, Speech-Language-Therapy-Services and Visual-Support-services. From localized evaluation it was identified that there were variations existing within provision of the low-tech-Augmentative-and-Alternative-Communication (schools, 2020). The project delivers through a 3-tier based model, a well coordinated program implementation which can enhance practice, awareness and accessibility for ASN children to visual-symbol based supports.

The methodology followed a trail of the Tier-1 within 5 schools in Edinburgh, wherein every one of those 5 school received - a training-session concerning the entire school; clear definition of roles and criteria; resources package; ongoing-guidance and supportive ventures and support meetings which are scheduled. After the initial Tier 1 methodology was implemented hence, the results which were obtained suggested that the Tier 1 was well received throughout till date (schools, 2020). Data collection for the findings were carried out using baseline-questionnaires, focus-groups, case-studies, follow-up-questionnaires and criteria-checklists. All these methods of data, was initiated from 2014, and the collection provided sufficient knowledge to develop a detailed report on the practice, acceptability and attitude of using symbol based visual-supports.

From the Tier 1 implementation of the VSP, it was established that the VSP sufficed as a sustainable and successful multi-agency and universal-model for symbol based visual-support, delivering equal access for each child concerned every time (The Visual Support Project (VSP): The structured implementation of visual symbol supports within mainstream schools., 2020). This thus allowed children with ASN, in enhanced participation regarding all activities within their learning environment, thus enriching inclusivity and collaboration in practices.

PECS-System (Picture-Exchange-Communication-System)

According to Flippin, et al., (2010), the Picture-Exchange-Communication-System or the PECS refers to yet another AAC based system involving a method of communication in toddlers or children other than the common method of speech for communication. In the system, there is physical exchange in pictures amongst ASN children participants and another person for communication via commenting or requesting (Boesch, et al., 2013). This method was developed originally for pre-school and toddler population suffering with ASD (Autism-Spectrum-Disorder) or other developmental-disabilities as means of enhancing communication. The system aided the children and toddler population in not only developing useful language skills but also to initiate communication. The PECS system has been successfully used amongst individuals catering to diverse abilities and age group.

As opined by Hart, and Banda, (2010), the PECS system provides children with alternative communication ways, for toddlers who have not been successful in developing speech. Through the system, children and toddlers requiring additional-support-needs, are taught and trained to initiate communication with other people. The toddlers first learn to initiate request for desirable objects which then expands further with them commenting on the object and towards their sentence formulation. The toddlers are then taught to initiate requests by themselves through handing exchange-cards which represent their wants to the adults having their desirable object at hand. Furthermore according to Yoder, and Lieberman, (2010) there are 6 phases through which PECS based communication is taught and developed within ASD toddlers, as discussed above and it depends on every child's individual caliber to master each phase on their own pace to move on to the next and to finally reach the 6th phase. The initiation of the communication process is thereby important over the progresses made or how far a child with ASN can make progress.

Building-Blocks for PECS

According to Homlitas, et al., (2014) for efficient development of PECS there are several important building-blocks which must always be taken in consideration. These are namely - a) interpersonal-interaction - a child should initiate a 'wanting' for striking communication with people; b) eye-sight - the toddlers must possess good eye-sight; c) mobility - the toddler must be able to make controlled movements and move their hands and arms with ease; d) motivation - the toddlers must exhibit motivation for requesting their desired objects from the adults; e) sequencing and planning - carrying out of sequential multi-stage activities must be achieved for obtaining a desirable result in toddlers; f) executive-functioning - children should learn to exhibit high-order thinking and reasoning abilities; g) receptive-language - the toddlers must understand and comprehend the language; h) problem-solving - the toddlers must be gradually successful in identifying challenges, understanding strategies which can be used for overcoming it and subsequently performing towards achieving the desired outcome (Homlitas, et al., 2014).

Problems faced by toddlers during PECS

According to Flippin, et al., (2010), there are certain behavioral cues which can easily help guardians or family members of toddlers suffering from ASD or requiring additional-support-needs, to understand whether the child is encountering any challenge or problem while learning PECS. These are discussed in details in the present section. Supporting this Ivy, et al., (2014) suggested that if a toddler shows behavioral cues like lacking motivation in requesting items of their desire, then that is a cue parents must identify showcasing difficulties in learning the PEC System. Furthermore as per the works of Gilroy, et al., (2018) resistance observed in a child regarding hand-over-hand guidance; frustration in toddlers when they feel incapable in relaying their message to the adult on the other side; struggle faced in toddlers or children in maintaining task based attentiveness and inability within toddlers to successfully match picture of objects to the real physical objects in front of them; are some other cues which families and caregivers of ASN children must address regarding the barriers to learning PECS.

In case a toddler faces the aforementioned difficulties, then difficulties may also be faced by the toddler in aspects related to - a) receptive-language: understanding or being receptive to the language b) expressive-language: using languages through signs, alternative ways, speech for communication of ideas, needs, wants of thoughts c) articulation: speech sound based clarity and spoken-language based clarity d) imitation e) working-memory: ability of temporary retention and manipulation of information during language comprehension, learning or reasoning, updating information gradually with occurrence of new changes f) motor-skills: hand and finger movement skills g) sequencing and planning: sequential performance of multi-stage activities for achieving defined outcomes h) behavior and i) social-skill: ability of toddler to engage upon reciprocal-interaction together with other members of society, compromising with them, recognizing and duly following social norms (Lerna, et al., 2012).

Communication through Visual-Support for children with ASD

According to Meadan, et al., (2011) visual-supports refer to communication-inducing tools used for individuals suffering from autism or for special-support-needs individuals and children, such that they are adaptable according to the age-range, added to being portable and user-friendly. Through such visual-supports, children or toddlers suffering from ASD can be helped from an early stage itself. Furthermore Hayes, et al., (2010) suggested that they can help in numerous ways namely: a) providing toddlers' routine and structure b) encouraging their independence and reducing over-dependence on parents, guardians, or caregivers c) boosting their confidence d) improving their understanding e) helping them by avoiding of anxiety and frustration f) providing children opportunity of social interaction. Thus through the aid of visual-support tools toddlers suffering from ASD can make consistent physical communication and interaction with others instead of making inconsistent or delayed speech.

Visual support can be of several types and according to age range and suitability a wide item range is often available to enhance communication of ASN children (Bernard-Opitz, 2011). Tactile symbols may be often used, together with short videos, photographs, reference objects, miniature objects of real large-sized objects. Also coloured objects like pictures, coloured cards, symbols, line-drawings, or written words are often commonly used for building communication and supporting interaction. Printed images, real objects of desire, pictures in tablet or smart-phones, laptops or PCs are also used by adults for inducing communication and enhancing interaction of ASD toddlers with other members of the society.

Conceptual Framework

Conceptual Framework

Proposed Methodology

Research Onion

The research onion, formulated by Saunders et al., (2007) denotes the critical stages which every research process must complete sequentially, to demonstrate a holistic research methodology (Sahay, 2016). These critical stages which every research must pass through, for a detailed and reliable knowledge acquisition and for effective data analysis are namely: research philosophy, approach, research-strategy, time-horizon and data-collection methods and data-analysis methods. The present research will also be enacted in a similar way, following the research stages sequentially, for extensive knowledge gathering and proper analysis of outcomes

Research Onion stages

Research Philosophy

Throughout the stage of research philosophy core skills and extensive knowledge is acquired for taking the research in the right direction (Saunders et al., 2015). There are mainly three types of research philosophies which are widely used namely: interpretivism philosophy, positivism or realism. In present proposal, taking in consideration the factors that the research will be following a particular set goal, together with it demonstrating an independent perspective, the positivism philosophy has been considered as most applicable (Prasad, 2017). Furthermore, in the research, scientific approach will be used based upon objectives for figuring out research analysis, for which this particular positivism philosophy has been deemed suitable.

Research Approach

In the stage of research approach, broad assumptions are conducted to detailed data-collection, interpretation or analysis categorized majorly into the approach in which data will be collected and the approach in which reasoning or data analysis will be conducted. In most studies, two major research approaches of - deductive approach or inductive approach are considered upon (Soiferman, 2010). In present scenario, a deductive research approach together with inductive approach will be considered to comprehend in greater details whether visual-support-systems will prove beneficiary or whether it will be contrary towards communication growth and development amongst ASN toddlers without or with ASD.

Data collection methods

Data collection may be categorized into 2 types- secondary-data-collection and primary-data-collection. While primary data corresponds to the fresh data collected from a sample populace, secondary data relates to the data acquired from work of previous researches or studies in the matter (Wilcox, et al., 2012). The present study will be based upon primary-and-secondary data collection, wherein primary data will be collected from a sample population of respondents comprising of 25 families with ASN toddlers, who have previously not used or are currently using and in practice with the visual-support-tools and PEC System for increased communication in children. Furthermore, 2 managers from primary schools in which the Tier 1 of VSP has been implemented will also be involved within the study, as respondents. Initially a detail literature review based secondary research will also be done considering the secondary information from relevant literary texts, journals, research papers, government websites and reliable sources as available in the internet and from authentic libraries.

Also to achieve best research outcomes questionnaire based surveys will be considered and enacted as means of quantitative-data-collection from the ASN toddler families of the City-of-Edinburgh, UK. The families will be selected through random-sampling acquiring their contact-information and whereabouts from Visual-support-service portals, Language-therapy-service-portal or from school portals which have implemented VSP. Random-sampling will help in conduction of the research in a transparent and reliable mannerism (Acharya, et al., 2013). School-managers will be interviewed using convenience-sampling-method, wherein prior consent will be taken from respective managers. The data collected through such detailed interviews will be considered as qualitative data (Sgier, 2012).

Also every step of data-collection will be enacted in a way such that ethical norms and standard protocols are followed, focusing on consent of respondent population, collection of authentic and reliable data, data safekeeping, data credibility and ethical code of conduct. Thus the entire proposal focuses on a research which will be prioritizing upon in-depth gain of knowledge through secondary and primary research practices. The main aim of the research will be to gather reliable, valid and authentic secondary data considering only internationally acclaimed journals, literary texts and government websites, published within the last~10 year time frame. Also the primary data procurement process will follow systematic processes like - filling up of respondent-consent-form, maintaining data-secrecy and privacy of results, preventing data manipulation or ambiguity via repeated checking of the process and incorporation of not 1 but 3 observers during interview process, to reduce errors or data misinterpretation.

Population sample

In the present research, a sample of 25 families with toddlers requiring additional-support will be taken in consideration, who have either not used or are currently in practice with visual-support-tools or PECS and are situated in and around City-of-Edinburgh, UK. A random-probability based sampling technique will be followed in selection of the families to free the research off bias and to maintain transparency. This method of collection will provide every family an equal likeability and probability of getting selected for the study. Data will be procured from these respondent population in form of quantitative questionnaire surveys. Also considering the qualitative-sampling method, 2 managers will be selected, via convenience-sampling-technique, from schools at Edinburgh which have implemented the VSP Tier-1 model to enhance support-based and inclusive learning practices. The pre-consent of such managers will be collected at an earlier date. Interviews in a detailed fashion considering open ended questions will be undertaken on selected managers, to understand their viewpoint and incorporate their opinion regarding the success of VSP and visual-support-tools upon enhancement of communication in ASN children.

Ethical concerns

The research will be formulated taking in consideration appropriate ethical conduct for research stages of - data procurement (secondary data and primary data), sampling and data-interpretation. Compliance form will be formerly collected from all the 25 respondent families as well as the 2 managers of schools. Furthermore, the secondary data incorporated in the study, must be ethically sourced and cited providing due reference to the authors. The research will also be conducted in a discrepant manner, avoiding data leaking and keeping data-protection the first-priority within the research study. The data of respondents will be solely collected for conducting the present research purpose only, and will be not be used for other means or researches. The respondent data so collected will be deleted once, the research has attained completion.

Additionally, extravagant strategies and protection protocols will be followed for assuring that valuable respondent information remains protected through updated software codes and protected via passwords-coded-security, to prevent manhandling of data and avoid tampering of data. Also only the involved researchers within the system, will gain access to respondent information, and such stringent measures will be adopted to prevent information leakage and bolster security.

Data Analysis

The data so obtained in the research will be analyzed through efficient qualitative and quantitative means from respondent sample. The quantitative-sample comprising of questionnaire surveys of ASN children families and the qualitative sampling of the school managers of Edinburgh, UK; will provide both large and detailed knowledge upon the topic concerned.

Data collected thus, will be subject to proper analysis and interpretation methods making the use of Excel-sheets, tabular contents and graphical representation. Statistical analysis will also be conducted in the final stages of data analysis to strengthen and highlight the results obtained from the findings, to draw comparisons between results of families implementing the visual-support system and results of families that have not implemented the support-tools yet. Furthermore dependent variables namely - treatment, language-development, communication, Visual-support-tools, toddler/early-childhood, supportive intervention and non-dependent variables like therapeutic-session or intentional-teaching session will come into play. Furthermore data procured in present study will be represented through statistical pie-charts, bars, graphs and tables to exhibit clearer presentation of facts and figurines. Data validity and reliability tests will also be conducted via MS Excel tools, to provide more clarity of information.

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Timeframe (GANNT Chart)

Timeframe (GANNT Chart) Timeframe (GANNT Chart)

Conclusion

The present proposal for work-based-project aims to focus upon the relevant area of visual-support-tools and how they impact toddler communication and interaction development for the Additional-Support-Needs children; supporting collaboration in practices and inclusivity within the educational system. The families of ASN toddlers (who may or may not be suffering from ASD) have been focused hence, together with visual-support-tools and implementation Projects like VSP and PECS to underline how efficient these have been in school setting and family setting, in enhancing toddler communication. The efforts made by Scottish Government and Edinburgh-City-Council in this regard is noteworthy and has been detailed upon in the present proposal. The proposal holds high development potential, for toddlers (ASN), delving upon inclusivity and collaborative learning practices.

References

Acharya, A.S., Prakash, A., Saxena, P. and Nigam, A., 2013. Sampling: Why and how of it. Indian Journal of Medical Specialties, 4(2), pp.330-333.

Baxter, J., Rutherford, M. and Holmes, S., 2015. The Visual Support Project (VSP): an authority-wide training, accreditation and practical resource for education settings supporting inclusive practice. The Journal of Communication Matters, 29(2), pp.9-13.

Bernard-Opitz, V., 2011. Visual support for children with autism spectrum disorders: Materials for visual learners. AAPC Publishing.

Boesch, M.C., Wendt, O., Subramanian, A. and Hsu, N., 2013. Comparative efficacy of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) versus a speech-generating device: Effects on requesting skills. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 7(3), pp.480-493.

Flippin, M., Reszka, S. and Watson, L.R., 2010. Effectiveness of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) on communication and speech for children with autism spectrum disorders: A meta-analysis. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology.

Gilroy, S.P., Leader, G. and McCleery, J.P., 2018. A pilot community‐based randomized comparison of speech generating devices and the picture exchange communication system for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Autism Research, 11(12), pp.1701-1711.

Hart, S.L. and Banda, D.R., 2010. Picture Exchange Communication System with individuals with developmental disabilities: A meta-analysis of single subject studies. Remedial and Special Education, 31(6), pp.476-488.

Hayes, G.R., Hirano, S., Marcu, G., Monibi, M., Nguyen, D.H. and Yeganyan, M., 2010. Interactive visual supports for children with autism. Personal and ubiquitous computing, 14(7), pp.663-680.

Homlitas, C., Rosales, R. and Candel, L., 2014. A further evaluation of behavioral skills training for implementation of the picture exchange communication system. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 47(1), pp.198-203.

Ivy, S.E., Hatton, D.D. and Hooper, J.D., 2014. Using the picture exchange communication system with students with visual impairment. Exceptional Children, 80(4), pp.474-488.

Lerna, A., Esposito, D., Conson, M., Russo, L. and Massagli, A., 2012. Social–communicative effects of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) in autism spectrum disorders. International journal of language & communication disorders, 47(5), pp.609-617.

Meadan, H., Ostrosky, M.M., Triplett, B., Michna, A. and Fettig, A., 2011. Using visual supports with young children with autism spectrum disorder. Teaching Exceptional Children, 43(6), pp.28-35.

Prasad, P., 2017. Crafting qualitative research: Beyond positivist traditions. Taylor & Francis.

Sahay, A., 2016. Peeling Saunder's Research Onion. Research Gate, Art, pp.1-5.

Saunders, M.N., Lewis, P., Thornhill, A. and Bristow, A., 2015. Understanding research philosophy and approaches to theory development.

Sgier, L., 2012. Qualitative data analysis. An Initiat. Gebert Ruf Stift, 19, pp.19-21.

Soiferman, L.K., 2010. Compare and Contrast Inductive and Deductive Research Approaches. Online Submission.

Wilcox, A.B., Gallagher, K.D., Boden-Albala, B. and Bakken, S.R., 2012. Research data collection methods: from paper to tablet computers. Medical care, pp.S68-S73.

Yoder, P.J. and Lieberman, R.G., 2010. Brief report: randomized test of the efficacy of picture exchange communication system on highly generalized picture exchanges in children with ASD. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 40(5), pp.629-632.


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