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Understanding the Multifaceted Roles of the Urinary System

1. Describe urinary system and its components:

Urinary system is also known as the renal system that is involved in eliminating waste material from the body, controlling the electrolytes as well as metabolism in the body, regulating the blood volume as well as blood pressure and regulating blood pH (Aspinall et al. 2020).

Urinary system is composed of four major components such as:

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  • The kidneys
  • Bladder
  • Urethra
  • Ureters
Kidneys
  • Two kidneys are located in the either sides of the spinal cord in the retroperitoneal space between the posterior abdominal walls and the peritoneum (Martins et al. 2019).
  • Human kidney has the size of the fist. Kidney in females is smaller in size than that in the male
  • Each kidney has 11.14 cm length, 4 cm thick and 6 cm width.
  • Kidneys are vascularised. Each kidney is covered by fibrous capsule that is composed on irregular and dense connectives tissue.
Urethra
  • Urethra is considered as the only urologic organ that is involved in showing any anatomical difference in female and male (Ochi et al. 2020).
  • Urethra is involved in transportation of urine from bladder to outside the body for the disposal of waste material of body into the external environment
Bladder:

Bladder is located in the anterior position of the uterus in females

In case of males, bladder is situated in the posterior side of the pelvic bones and the anterior part of rectum (Sampaio and Favorito, 2020)

It is associated in collecting the urine from the ureter

Bladder is generally partially retroperitoneal (located outsides of the peritoneal cavity)

Ureter:

Ureter is the tube-like structure that is composed of muscle fibres that play important roles in propelling urine from kidneys to urinary bladder.

2. Describe the function of kidney
  • Kidney plays important roles in excretion of waste products from body in the form of urea, ammonia, uric acids, creatinine, drugs and creatinine phosphate (Shirzadfar and Gordoghli, 2019).
  • Kidney is involved in regulation of the ion balance within blood such as maintaining the balance of sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphate and chloride ions.
  • Kidneys play an important role in maintaining blood pH by regulating the ranges of bicarbonate ions [CO3] and facilitating the excretion of the hydrogen ions.
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3. Roles of nephrons

Nephrons are considered as the functional units of kidneys that are involved in cleansing of blood and maintainig proper balance of different constituents in the circulation (Walentowicz et al. 2017).

4. Roles of glomeruli
Glomeruli play crucial roles in filtration f blood
  • Glomeruli is involved in the filtration of blood based on the size of the particles present in the blood therefore the large particles such as blood cells, antibodies, platelets and albumen in the blood are excluded from the filtration process.
  • Glomerulus plays the primary filtration activities in the kidney.
  • The first part of the glomerulus is known as the nephron which is tubular structure that plays important roles in creation final urine.
  • Through glomeruli more than 200 litre filtrates pass , still less than 2 litre waste are excreted from the human body due to the systematic filtration process of glomeruli. This is possible because glomerulus excrete the waste products and conserve the nutrients and essential products into the blood stream.
5. Process of urinary filtration:
  • Urinary filtration is maintained effectively by the osmotic pressure inside and outside the glomerular capillaries (Aspinall et al. 2020).
  • Filtration membrane is associated with limiting the size of the solutes thereby restricting the entry of larges particles through the membrane.
  • Now in while solutes enter in to the glomerular capillaries the osmotic pressure inside the capillaries is higher than that of the Bowman’s capsule, Therefore the solutes then pushed towards the Bowmans capsule through the pores of the papillary membrane and then enters into the renal tubules.
  • Solutes and water are smaller than the size of proteins therefore they are forced to enter into renal tubules.
  • The amino acids, water and other solutes are then transferred into the tubular cells and then enters into the capillary blood.
Reference list:

Aspinall, V., Cappello, M. and Phillips, C., 2020. Urinary system. Introduction to animal and veterinary anatomy and physiology, pp.117-126.

Martins, P., Pinto, S. and André, A., 2019, June. Interactive demonstration of medical simulations using a virtual reality approach: Application to the male urinary system. In 2019 5th Experiment International Conference (exp. at'19) (pp. 251-252). IEEE.

Ochi, A., Muro, S., Adachi, T. and Akita, K., 2020. Zoning inside the renal fascia: The anatomical relationship between the urinary system and perirenal fat. International Journal of Urology.

Sampaio, F.J.B. and Favorito, L.A., 2020. Basic Anatomy of Urinary Tract. Translational Research in Pediatric Urology, pp.17-26.

Shirzadfar, H. and Gordoghli, N., 2019. Study the Anatomy and Physiology of Body's Urinary System and Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS) for the Design an Intelligent Alarm System for Monitoring of FMS. Journal of Clinical and Translational Urology, 1(1), pp.72-81.

Walentowicz, M., Krzemiński, D., Kopański, Z., Liniarski, M., Tabak, J., Dyl, S., Kieczka-Radzikowska, K. and Mazurek, M., 2017. Selected aspects of the urinary system anatomy and physiology. Journal of Clinical Healthcare, 89(2017_3), pp.01-05.


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