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Evolution of Educational Practices

  • 4 Pages
  • Published On: 24-11-2023
Introduction

In the field of higher education (Cross 1987) and a series of national reports (Study Group 1984), there are many leaders since 1980, to engage the students in the learning and developmental activities so that they can feel involved and take active participation in the learning process. As per the traditional learning process, the professionals provide lectures and the student listen the lectures for understanding the study and improve their knowledge in the university classroom. It is a traditional method of learning and development which is changing over the period of time, where the interactive learning sessions are introduced. There are some faculty members who are not willing to adopt the new interactive instructional technique of learning activities. However through interactive learning and development, it is possible to develop active learning by engaging the faculty members, administrators, educational researchers and faculty developers. England’s primary schools are effective to introduce change and educational reform to do good job in education and learning activities. Investment in the primary educational activities is also rising at a rapid arte sing 1997 and it has positive impacts on the society where government of the country across the globe are also collaborating for enhancing the active educational practice in the society, influenced by Bruner (1986, 1990, 1996) and Barnes (1976), Alexander (2001, 2005, 2008).

Over the decades, the learning style has been changing and the teachers refer to have interactive classes so that the students can participate and enhance their skill set and abilities. writings of Mikhail Bakhtin when conceptualising ‘dialogic’ or ‘dialogism’, which can be described as “a general epistemology for the human sciences” and/or “an ontology of the human mind” is effective to enhance the activities of educational reform (Linell, 2009, 30).ontological principle of dialogue can be considered as “creativity, learning to learn, and an ethics of openness to the other are relatively easy to understand as closely related fruits of deeper identification with the space of dialogue itself” (Wegerif, 2008, 359).

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Critical analysis

The teachers and researchers focus on valuable learning activities and there are still problems while learning is conducted in small groups. It is being 40 years, where the teachers and educational researchers are talking about quality and quantity of the classroom sessions which are evaluated further. They have the concern about the constructive talk in the classroom where communication plays a crucial role in managing the learning activities and enhance the student participation. Primary National Strategy was introduced in 2003 which is related to enhancing communication through increasing talk at the classroom (DfES, 2003a cited in Cambridge Primary Review, 2009: p.15) and as a result it is possible for the teaching professionals to guide the students about the ways of communicating with others and developing arguments at the classroom. Active learning activities are important in this regard where the students can review the school books as well as the internet which are the great sources of gathering a vast knowledge and understanding about the study. On the website of the Centre for Educational Innovation, active learning is considered as an instructional approach to enhance student learning where it is possible to increase participation rate of the students such as writing, talking and reflecting their skill set and knowledge efficiently (Centre for Educational Innovation, n.d.).

As per the Cambridge Primary Review (Alexander, 2010), there is necessity of education reform to develop national curriculum. Ion the Cambridge primary review, 75 recommendations and 78 conclusions were developed where the researchers agree that the best practice is to have extensive research. As per the conclusion, the children are comfortable to have linguistically and socially engaging atmosphere where they can be open and communicate with others (Alexander, 2010). Their learning and activities can be enhanced over the period of time and their verbal and non-verbal communication are also improved through the learning and developmental session. However, the review has been disregarded in favour of a knowledge-based curriculum by the Coalition Government of the United Kingdom (NUT, 2013). The teaching professionals must focus on knowledge based learning and interact with the students for improving their skill set and help them to gather a vast knowledge in future.

Rajala, Hilppo and Lipponen (2012) expressed that exploratory learning is helpful to develop dominant communication and it is also observed that the children has the ability to interact with others mainly teaching professionals if they get friendly and suitable environment of learning and development. Among the children with higher ability, there is “over-confident and able to impose an incorrect answer” as compared to the students with lower ability. The children are not comfortable to express their thought if they did not get friendly and atmosphere and feel safe (Mercer and Dawes, 2008; Wolfe and Alexander, 2008). Tolmie et al. (2010) counteract this finding by stating that exploratory communication is a mixed method of learning where social dynamic is important to involve the children in the classroom and enhance the practice of group discussion over the period of time. Some students felt that they face challenges in expressing their own thoughts and understanding in the class room (Robins, 2011). It is hereby questionable that whether the teaching professionals facilitate exploratory talk to develop group discussion which is free from any judgmental comments.

Mercer and Dawes (2008) stated that, at the initial stages of learning and development, the teachers must enhance exploratory talk at the class room so that the pupils can engage with the learning activities and ensure forming and merging the concepts. ‘Talk partners’ is the term utilised in the primary schools where the teaching professionals encourage the students to participate in the questions answer round and they are asked to discuss with their partner about a particular question. It further enhances their understanding and knowledge where they try to cooperate with their partners and share each other’s knowledge and skill (Mercer and Dawes 2008). It encourages the children to engage with the learning and improve their performance in the classroom. The teaching professionals provide a scope to the children to think before responding and it is termed as ‘purposeful pauses’ where it has significant effects on child learning and development. It develops their mind set and improves critical thinking skill in long run (Cohrssen, Church and Tayler, 2014). Systematic and targeted questions are required to enhance exploratory talk at the class room and it is beneficial to develop group discussion within effective period of time (Wolfe and Alexander, 2008; Kazepides, 2012). Arnott (2014) stated that close ended questions are fruitful to get instant respond from the students and it increases the critical thinking level of the children. The teaching professionals are hereby playing an important role to develop confidence among the students by providing good questionnaire set so that they can maximise their knowledge and skill set in the classroom. Occurrence of exploratory talk is also beneficial to enhance children’s learning and development (Kerawalla, Petrou and Scanlon, 2012).

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Collaborative interactions are difficult to be managed well in the classroom where irrelevant contribution may become a problem in the learning and developmental activities where the teaching professionals can face difficulties to lead the students efficiently (Wolfe and Alexander, 2008). As stated by Venville (2008), without adult intervention, it is necessary to encourage the children to express their feeling sand thoughts in front of others where if they are incorrect. It further boosts their interest and they can learn through gathering experience and improve their knowledge and skill set in long run. The teachers must be resent during the discussion, as the student may not able to identify the misconception and it is the responsibility of the teachers to acknowledge the needs and teach the students efficiently. Venville (2008) opined that, the communication and positive interactions among the teachers and students enhances the quality of education where the students can gather a vast knowledge through discussing the concepts with the teachers. It further promotes good understanding and knowledge enhancement in the classroom without adult interactions where the students are able to cooperate with the teachers and improve their knowledge and skill set.

Alexander claimed that dialogic teaching cumulative is the most challenging feature in education. Of communication is effective at the class room, it enhances the learning activities and help the student to acquire new skill set and knowledge. Dialogue in Extract 1 indicates that communication cannot be considered as cumulative as the teachers ask the student individually the same question. And on the other hand, Albeit ideas are connected in Extract 2 refers that communication raises noise at the classroom and it does not result accumulation of new skill and knowledge. In Extract 1, the students have the time to express their thought and represent the arguments as per their knowledge and skill set and extract 2 indicates that the student’s responses are effective for further comment. Openness in lesson plan has crucial impacts on the learning and developmental activities and student’s responses become surprising as they were not pre-planned in providing arguments. Only the experienced teaching professionals are able to handle the situation and they are also knowledgeable to implement open lesson plan for further learning and developmental activities.


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