Evolution of Teaching Styles and Learning Models

Introduction

Teaching styles and models of learning are changing with every passing time. The education system has been renewing its components of learning and the models of teaching. Over the last few years, scholars and researchers have developed different practices and principles that are related to the assessment of learning and teaching mechanisms. In this study, a systematic analysis of theories and concepts that are associated with learners' individual learning preferences is discussed. Ways of applying the theories related to communication, curriculum, and learning in teaching and assessments are well analyzed here. Application of the models in a person's area of specialization is an important area that is discussed here.

1.1 Theories, principles, and models of learning

All existing theories and models are important for managing the daily activities of teachers. In the field of education and training, several viewpoints from several theorists are found out. Some of them are behaviorism, cognitivism, Humanism, and brain-based learning theory. Out of these four models, behaviorism and cognitivism can be chosen for discussion. Teacher priority of work and learning mechanisms can be assessed using the transfer for knowledge, harmonizing with students, participation of activities.

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Behaviorism:

Behaviorism is a theory of learning that explains “all behaviors are learned through interaction with the environment through a process called conditioning". Response to environmental stimuli is identified as behaviorism. This is identified as the derived outcome of experiences Pavlov that can manipulate the quality standards of living. The teacher is focused at the core of this theory rather than focusing on students. Teachers are found to be referring to positive experiences, which gives an idea of specific behavioral development. Individual people learn through interacting and the behaviors are recorded. It is focused on the behaviors that are learned through interaction with the environment. Behaviorism is an identification unit for teachers that helps them understand how students are reacting to a component and showing their attitude in the classroom (Johnson, 2020). Teachers can also directly influence the way students behave. This theory by Skinner is identified to be a specified form of classroom management.

Human beings are believed to be shaped by their desired components using this theory of behaviorism. The system is typically based on “rewards and punishments.” For example, in a classroom setting, a teacher can take away all privileges if the student is found to be misbehaving. Positive ranking based on the behavioral aspects of a student is discussed in the form of classroom management. Behaviorists define learning as "an acquisition of new behavior based upon environmental conditions". For a certain week, a student's good behavior can be rated as important and similar concepts can be applied for the punishments. Types of learned behavior include habituation, conditioning, sensitization, and imprinting (Clark, 2018). The purpose of the development of this theory is to focus on behaviorist teaching methods, which can manipulate a subject's environment. Analyzing the effect of behavior inside a controlled environment for both human beings and animals is associated with behaviorism. However, among all these positive aspects, behaviorism is identified to be affecting children badly with neuro-diversities and mental health concerns.

The behavioral conflict raised in terms of expectation, emotion, and motivations has been managed successfully by conducting the experiments in a controlled environment. Humanism experts believe that an artificial environment creation invalidates the ecology. Popular theorist Skinner has focused on one external situation and condition, which evokes conflicts. Different recognizable conditions are created for understanding reinforcement and promotion of activities. Skinner believed that “all human action is a direct result of conditioning and explained that the concept of free will is an illusion simply” (Baum, 2018). The important part of operant conditional learning is supposed to be recognizing the operant behavior and it is identified the consequences of behaviors. Skinner's theory can be implemented in the school system, as teachers have to implement a reinforcement system in their classroom. For that, a token economy that rewards students immediately is reinforced. However, it can be concluded that behaviorism is responsible for establishing psychology for managing scientific discipline through the application of methods and experiments (Budiman, 2017.).

Cognitivism

Cognitive theories contend with "instructional components and environmental cues". Cognitivism is identified as an important aspect of learning theories that mainly focuses on the process of receiving information along with its organization and storage. Problem-solving, areas of development, knowledge, thinking, and memory are associated with information processing. Emphasizing the role of environmental conditioning and facilitating learning is evaluated. Cognitivism is used in the classroom to help students refine their thinking and recognize what went wrong for them in the classroom. Introducing new aspects of something that is already known to the students is important. An example of cognitive learning is to ask the student to reflect on their experience. Students are asked to find out new solutions for problems in engaging in discussions of the studies being taught. Helping students to understand the direction of solving a problem is associated with cognitivism (Algahtani, 2017).

Cognitivism increases the understanding of processing information by human brains and drawing conclusions out of it. At the primary level encouraging the students to play stacking and building games along with playing simple board games can engage the pupils. Types of cognitive learning include implicit, explicit, associative, meaningful, cooperative, observation, habituation, discovery learning (Guercio, 2020). In opposition to behaviorists, cognitivist is not in support of outward exhibition learning. Maximum focus is given on the internal process and connection that takes place while learning.

Popular theorist Bandura designed a social learning theory that plays a significant role in modeling and observation of a process. This theory also links with cognitivism and potential behaviorism. Cognitive theories and conditioning suggest psychological manipulations. The memory and attention of human beings are recognized through the concepts of sequential learning behavior. It is loaded with coded data for serving as an action guide for specific situations (Marušić, and Schwenkler, 2018). The humanitarians emphasize interpersonal thinking as they have started learning using feelings, expressions of joy. Organizers, humanitarians are doing the work of identifying the learning preferences and emphasizing on systematic arrangement of information. Effective critical thinking and problem-solving skills are included as part of the assessment in such theories.

1.2 Ways of applying theories, principles, and models of learning in learning and assessment

The teaching, learning, and assessment are important aspects to identify specific challenges that are faced by students while they are studying in an education setting. The evaluation process must be enhanced for the management of learning and assessment. Social situation theories help in the development of adequate training components (Heras-Escribano, 2019). Suppose in the case of cognitivism it is explained that learning happens through a mental process. Information system needs to be systematically arranged so that teachers can furnish themselves with different principles. Learners are required to be given enough chances to flourish. Providing valuable and speedy feedback can impact behaviorism inside the classroom. Central beliefs of behaviorism are identified as students learning through reinforcement. In the modern classroom, rewarding a student that is working well with praise points is identified as a behaviorist approach. Using the same operant conditioning technique the students are expected to behave well and strive for better work. The reputation of tasks and quizzes can help in the improvement of test scores and memorizing patterns for students (Al-Jarrah et al. 2019). On the other hand, cognitivism is applicable inside the classroom through asking questions to help students refine their thinking and recognizing the wrong deeds. Topics may be approached in a differentiated way to students for a redefinition of activities.

1.3 Models of learning preferences

Vark, Kolb, and honey, and Mumford are the identified models of learning and two of them are going to be discussed here. Models of learning are identified in terms of an individual's exceptional techniques. There is strength, weakness and favourability observed. Comprehension of the received information and extracting important information to the core is analyzed in these models. Here, two methods such as Honey and Mumford style of learning along with Kolb’s model have been chosen. While learning the activists were identified as individuals with differing opinions. In the case of Honey and Mumford learning, four distinct styles such as activist, theorist, pragmatist, and reflector is seen. Learning is impacted by using observation and reflecting on results (Pölzler, and Cole Wright, 2020). Honey and Mumford learning helps in listing out the majority of processes that work on pragmatists, convergers, and activists. This process identifies an experience of work along with reflecting on it. Drawing their conclusion and putting each practical experience into practice is important. Pragmatists do linking the task on hands and problems. Reflectors are those who learn from activities and allow them for watching, thinking and reviewing. Moreover, some theorists work with case studies, models, and readings. As an activist, there are preferences identified for new experiences and problem solving (Wright, 2018).

Kolb's learning theory is essential in terms of team formation and learning collaboratively. In Kolb's learning, the involvement of abstract concepts was seen and flexibility in a range situation was emphasized for learning improvisation. The natural occurrence of learning methods is seen in this cycle. Learning is focused on concrete experiences and active experimentation. There are abstract conceptualizations observed along with reflective observation. Kolb's theory is identified as one of the most humanistic and constructivist approaches towards education. It is also identified as "knowledge created through the transformation of experiences". Being a cyclic process, entrance to it is easier at any later stage (Shaw, 2019). Learners can view strong and emotional reflection as a concrete experience. Computer-based tasks are identified as abstract experiences in which the theory is applied.

1.4 Identifying learners' individual learning preferences for learning, assessment, and teaching

Learners' individual learning preferences are important to be analyzed as it enables creative methods of learning. The students get indulged in this creative method and they are required to make effective uses of learning tools. Learning preferences are maximized and students are enabled to identify their strengths and weaknesses (Teixeira et al. 2017). Using the honey and Mumford model the teachers and students can engage in their preferred learning activities. Moreover, there is Kolb's theory that promotes the effectiveness of learners' mental engagement.

2.1 Theories, principles, and models of communication

Communication is based on eight essential elements such as source, message, channel, receiver, feedback, context, environment, and interference. Now all these elements effectively manage communication (Pathan et al. 2018). In the education sector, students are required to be assessed with effective communication techniques, which are essentially going to handle their effectiveness and presence within the classroom. Moreover, noise is identified as an effective medium of interrupting communication.

Theories of communication

Vygotsky's theory of socio-cultural language development and Piaget's theory of cognitive development is associated with models of communication in learning. Vygotsky believed that language is developed from social interaction that is applicable within communication purposes. Language is identified as an effective tool of communication with the outside world. This theorist also explained that private speech is typically defined as compared to social speech. This theory mostly represents externalized thoughts and the functionalities are associated with communication for self-guidance and self-direction. This theory of communication is curvilinear and increasing at a younger age (Rahmatirad, 2020). However, it decreases gradually and loses its audible quality. The task difficulty is increased and greater effort is needed for reaching out to a solution of communication effectiveness. This theory has a strong emphasis on social constructivism and provides general stages of development. Proximal development along with scaffolding and cultural tools is used. According to this theory, language plays a powerful role in shaping thought (Rodríguez Cepeda, 2018). Opportunities are established for learners to gather knowledge from skilled peers and teachers.

Piaget's theory has a negative relationship associated with social speech. According to Jean Piaget, children first create a mental structure and they develop language after using this schema in later stages. It declines monotonically with age. Represents an ability to take account the perspective of another person (Ratnaningsih, Hidayat,. and Santika, 2019). It is true to the relational and reciprocal communication as identified by the theorist. Supporting children for exploration of the world and discovering knowledge is important. According to Piaget, language plays a minimal role in labeling children's experiences, as they are more egocentric. A key process in development and learning is equilibrium, assimilation, and accommodation. Strong emphasis on the development stage is identified.

Two principles of communication

Principles of communication include clarity, conciseness, correct, complete, consistent, and concrete. Now, in this report, two of the principles are discussed such as clarity, correct and complete. Clarity of communication is important as good communication has to be meaningful and it should be exchanged between two parties. Clarity of communication is achieved with confidence and clear sharing of information. Communication skill is something, which needs to be developed constantly, and one must keep it in check (Ratnaningsih, Hidayat and Santika, 2019). Correctness in communication is associated with no grammatical errors engaged within. Correct communication has features of well-timed and exact information sharing. Correct communication boosts the confidence level. A communication is tagged complete only after all facts that are conveyed to the audience. The sender has to focus on the receiver's mindset and accordingly it will be conveyed. Additional information requirements are managed as well.

Analysis of communication model

Shannon and weaver’s model of communication is associated with the inclusion of noises and it is quite an important aspect to be considered. Achievement of communication can be affected by various factors. Effective communication does not only take place between sender and receiver, it also engages with channel and encoding. The receiver should grab the matter being transmitted over voice. "Sender is expected to transmit the message to a person through a medium or channel for the effectiveness of response". This theory accepts the mathematical derivation of information entropy as a measurement of uncertainty in a message. Dominant aspects of communication are also analyzed here. The Shannon and Weaver model is identified as a linear model that provides a framework of message sending and receiving. This model is applicable in communication as it can explain how messages are usually mixed up (iirq.org, 2021). The communication model identifies misinterpretation of the process of sending and receiving the message. The transmitter and decoder are important elements of this model. The model is advantageous as it is a two-way communication process and makes the model applicable in general communication. It is tagged as the mother of all models and a clear message is passed with an alignment of the recipient.

2.2 Ways of applying theories, principles, and models of communication in learning

Having effective communication skills helps develop classroom activities and the learning of students is enhanced. Verbal communication is identified as an effective method of interacting with students. Identification of weak and strong learners for the essential engagement of communication models is important (iirq.org, 2021). Managing accurate body language, gestures, and tone of pitch helps in the effective delivery of communication models. As an individual, a person might have a different approach to responding to the communication model. Communication models help students to start their presentations effectively. Their thesis determines how to catch the attention of listeners. Better delivery of writing and speaking conjugation is observed with the use of this communication model. Communication models show the metaphorical processing of data signals. In the case of e-learning effective alignment of communication has managed to learn through pieces of expression.

3.1 Theories, principles, and models of assessment

In this section, the assessment refers to the understanding of values along with the quality of a process. Classrooms are required to be assessed based on the communication, learning, and curriculum development model. Learning theories help in assessing the essential factors of educational improvement in schools. Models of assessment help in understanding whether the students have become liable enough to face the social and educational challenges. Individual student performances are recorded and it is measured with the models of assessment. Here Sally Brown, Phil Race & Brenda Smith have developed a theory, which can present a discussion on the Ten-point manifesto that is developed. The focus of this theory is on the side of enhancing the confidence level of learners and summative assessments (Johnson, 2020). The assessment tool used requires it to be compatible with the current alignment of the education system. Learners are contributing to the desired results of effective evaluation. Measuring what impact is there of the evaluation on students is important and prioritized. The ten-point

assessment manifesto is assembled using the following format such as:

Assessment is based on the understanding of the way students learn

Validity of assessment such as choice of questions and marking system has to be suitable

Individual differences within students should be accommodated in the assessments

The assessment purposes need to be explained to the participant to avoid ambiguity

Reliable and consistent basement instruction helps in the management of student trust in the learning systems (Pathan et al. 2018)

Assessment criteria are supposed to provide an opportunity to the staff and students to reflect on their practice of learning.

Explicit, easily understandable assessment criteria are required to be incorporated. There is favorable condition handling required

The assessment amount should be appropriate and student must not be overloaded with the assessment burden

The integral component of course design leaves an impact on the conditions of assessments

Feedback receiving format has to be integrated as the feedback will contain a reflection of knowledge and skills to be assessed

Hence, it becomes clear to the audience that the effectiveness of a model is dependent on these factors.

Next comes, a discussion on the VASCR model (iirq.org, 2021). This model is valid, authentic, reliable, current, and sufficient. Principles of assessment are related to evidence and specific process. The accountability of VACSR is identified as:

Valid: Appropriate assessment of syllabus and qualification handbook

Authentic: Evidence produced is genuinely belonging to the learner

Current: Whether the learner's skills and knowledge are well described in the handbook

Sufficient: An overall coverage of requirements of the syllabus and handbook

Reliable: Consistency made with past assessment opportunities inclusive of assessor

This essay has focused on the development of standardized assessment. The publicly funded schools are associated with the process. The standardized assessment procedure is applicable is associated with clarification of starting points and action. Investing details of learner and performance is important to be managed (Abazari, and Brojeni, 2017). Monitoring improvements, as well as evaluation of educational inventions, are seen. There are motivating efforts and self-monitoring observed for learning and integrity. Providing feedback to ensure future actions are taken is also explained here.

3.2 Ways of applying theories, principles, and models of assessment in learning

The differentiated theories, principles, and models of assessment are applicable for learner growth. Pre-requisites of qualification are required to be judged to apply the theories to people. Assessment requires to be valid along with reliable growth and consistency. The information of assessment has to be explicit along with accessible and transparent. The assessment is required to be inclusive and equitable (Beauchamp, 2015). Teachers need to engage in the learner's theory, as the psychological problems of students are required to be assessed. The instructor gets enough help while planning to teach as they pursue educational theories. Formative and summative assessments truly help in the development of a student through fairness and equity. There is exceptional understanding created by assessing the knowledge of pupils. Diagnostic assessment helps in the growth of learners' perspectives. Student's higher skill sets are to be analyzed and individual planning of learner activity is measured accordingly.

By applying different theories, models, and principles of assessment the teaching sessions are planned, and thought processing on pupils' engagement is done. A significant timetable generation for learning is practically managing the schedule of work. As a teacher, it is my responsibility to manage each of the students so that they can work closely and monitor their significant growth (Buchholtz et al. 2018). The results are more focused and portraying the roles of teachers should be explained more. An open-ended process of learning and evaluation is important for guiding the learners in their difficulties. Encouraging the ability to perform well and perform more is important as well. The flexibility of learning is achieved with the use of online methods. An indulgence of skills motivates each of the people and allows behavioral growth. The role of teachers as facilitators is promoted. Accurate assumptions of learning and engagement are incorporated with precise evaluation.

4.1 Theories and models of curriculum and development

Theories and models are applicable for curriculum and development. Here, Ralph Tyler's objective rational model can be explained. This model is essential in terms of generating the basic principles of curriculum and instruction. The students are given an idea of a quintessential prototype while scientific approaches are maintained (Dixson, and Worrell, 2016.). Determination of school perspectives of education and incorporating daily routines are impressive. Curriculum development is identified as the process of planning, implementing, and evaluating the curriculum. Tyler posits the problem in education through unmistakably defined purposes. According to Tyler, the emphasis should be on straightforward recommendations applicable for the inclusion of effective tools and educators working in different domains for rationalizing the students' needs. A deductive approach is observed for the development of the Tyler model. Tyler comes as an aspect of identifying data gatherings like learners and subject matters. Refining objectives are done through philosophical and psychological screens. Curriculum objectives are indicating behavior development and content, which is to be applied.

The educational purposes that should be pinned according to Tyler are identified as a source of educational objective building. Helpful materials are supposed to be integrated inside the learning experience and guiding process. Strengths of the Tyler model can be explained in terms of clear identification of objectives and a good strategy, to begin with (Ellis, and Goodyear, 2016). Active participation of learners and a simple linear approach to developing the behavioral objectives are explained. In the Tyler model, students have to successfully pass through two screens that are popularly known as instructional objectives. Curriculum objectives indicate the behavior that has to be developed in the area of schools. Four fundamental questions that relate to Tyler are identified as:

Educational purposes that schools attain and promote quality improvement

Effective organization of educational experiences

Determining the purpose of being attended by education staff

Learning experiences that attain the purpose of management

The interactive generation of learning experience through selective process optimization is evaluated through obtaining various types of objectives. The Tyler model is effective though it has narrowly interpreted objectives. The consumption of behavioral objectives and critical thinking is essential in the behavioral management of pupils. Difficult and time-consuming process contracts range of student skills and knowledge.

Another theory that can be taken into consideration is identified as the Malcolm Skilbeck model of curriculum. It is identified to be locating the curriculum design and development. A cultural framework is improvised within the development of interruptions and symbolic systems. The definition of training and cultural values is incorporated within statistical analysis and development. Studies incorporate the overall buildup and systematic interpretation of objects. The Skilbeck model is locating the curriculum design and development within a particular organization or school (Hughes, Hughes, and Hodgkinson, 2017). There is presupposed notion and linear programming designed that helps in the management of components. Teachers can begin at any stage and they are required to assess the particulars of a student to become capable of work. A comprehensive framework encompasses process models and objectifies flexibility within students for their development. There is absolute management of processes done through adopting changes and opening the circumstances.

The main concern starts with a situational analysis. There is dynamic model development that works on the importance of situations and designing the concepts of each individual. An iterative approach is enabled to gain maximum effects of the curriculum. The development prospect of each individual requires a conceptual breakdown of systems. In this case, educators are not quite familiar with the process of developing essentials in schools. Unless a professional is hired, there cannot be an appropriate interpretation of this system inside schools.

4.2 Ways of applying theories and models of curriculum and development in Own specialized curriculum area

The curriculum area of specialization, in this case, is mathematics and it is quite effective in terms of using Tyler models. Mathematics is always logical and it begins with stating the objectives. Objectives are clearly defined in the process of covering the statement. The organization of systematic processes is evaluated through the constant development of perspectives. Mathematical understanding and subject overview possibly overtake the simple linear approach of development used in the Tyler model. I, as a teacher, have developed some of the important concepts of carrying student skills and knowledge. Behavioral objectives are assessed and it is managed at the time of applying the model in reality. The Tyler model is identified as an objective model that takes unbiased decisions and indicates behavior development to the core. The curriculum indicates the development content to be applied to the core. Examining society is identified as a process of specifying instructional objectives.

5.1 Theories and models of reflection and evaluation

Theories and models of reflection and evaluation are the most focused in the mathematics field. The model which is in consideration is Gibbs's reflective model. This model is formulated by Graham Gibbs and it has various stages via which individuals reflect upon the actions. Learning from past experiences is involved within this model. Meaning of experiences are evaluative and analytical conditions are supposed to be applied inside the conceptual undertaking of subjects. Description, feelings, evaluation, analysis, conclusion, and action plan is appropriate for the stages of development. Positive and negative experiences are leaving an impact on students. From my understanding, I am capable of deriving the summary of components. The action plan is developed to engage in activities that are going to benefit each individual.

I am capable of identifying proper steps that create functional authenticity and indulge in the professional and personal development of my qualities. Essential categorization is expected to highlight the actions of learners and position them according to needs. I have to find an opportunity where I can flourish my strength and regain consciousness. Learning through different stages and encouraging the people in different work is summarized and highlighted. Learners need to identify their exact operations and derivatives (Lefrancois, 2019). As per the reflection theory, evaluation of experiences should be in terms of both good and bad. It can make sense of proposing authorized control over learning opportunities. Starting from the year 1988, this reflective cycle is allowing exceptional points of view to connect with people both emotionally and physically. Without a reflection on a person's learning, it is difficult to improve situations for next time. The purpose of Gibbs is to encourage people to think systematically about experiences of specific situations and events. Reflection is to be structured in phases. Gibbs's reflection helps in managing the five elements of reporting, reasoning, relating, reconstruction, and responding (Khan, and Law, 2015). Reflection has different steps of self-awareness, description, analysis, and evaluation. A cognitive model of reflection is well integrated within this. The most important levels such as technical, practical, and critical are evident through this type of reflection. The last step of reflection is to see other's beliefs and values and opinions.

Another model that can be discovered is identified in terms of Kolb's experiential one. This model improvises the concepts of developing essentials and managing systematic incorporation of business concepts (Murtonen et al. 2017). There is internal and external appreciation observed. Most people are unaware of the fact that they develop an impression on others with their behaviors. Giving answers to questions at every stage is estimating the reflective factors. My strategy for practicing mathematics is to understand the weakness of students at every stage. It helps me to understand my areas of improvement (Pianpeng, and Koraneekij, 2016). Kolb's experiential learning is the basis of analysis that reviews each system and recalls the starting point of one another. Concrete learning, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization, active experimentation is indulged within the segment of Kolb's experiential learning. Effectiveness is seen with the learner progress measurement. The cycle works by reflective observation and showing interest in simple reading and learning. The theory of experimentation is simply a game-changer for any person. Active participation helps in the overall development of students and teachers as a person cannot learn by reading or observing simply. This model matches with a person that is expecting to do more.

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5.2 Ways of applying theories and models of reflection and evaluation in own practice

Application of theories and models of reflection is important, as the evaluation is largely dependent on the management of teaching in a particular profession. The model matches users according to their needs. Feeling, watching, thinking, and doing are essential in the reflective analysis of components (Petrová, 2018). There are associations of models that sequentially improve learning and teachers can also process the generalization of the assessment process. The application of concepts through experiencing development is important. In the mathematical domain, asking each of the students to participate in an activity. It is not a subject that will be understood by listening to lectures. At first, they require the analysis of constructive ideas of development. Learning is essential in any stage of life. Whether it is a student or a teacher, mathematics is based on logical reasoning and analysis.

Conclusion

This study enables a person to understand the ethical process of teaching and designing basic materials that will help the pupils to go through a good evaluation process. There are constructivist ideas that align with the nature of development in students. Here, Piaget's theory along with inquiry-based teaching models is discussed. The curriculum is well designed and the uses of Kolb's model can be seen. The assessment model, learning model, and curriculum models are well analyzed in this case. There exist development criteria of a student-teacher relationship within a particular setup. It is essential in terms of reflecting on the learning activities designed for students.

References

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Website

iirq.org, 2021. Available at: [Accessed on 01/06/2021]

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