Health Implications and Intervention Approaches

Introduction

Obesity is referred to as the condition in excessive or abnormal amount of fat is deposited in the body created health risk for the individuals (Bray et al. 2016). The individuals who have Basal Metabolic Rate (BMI) rate between 18-25 are called normal but the BMI rate of 25-30 is regarded as overweight and 30-35 is regarded as obese along with above 35 is regarded as severely obese (Heymsfield and Wadden, 2017). The health risks faced as a result of obesity include high blood pressure, type-2 diabetes, heart disease and others (Furukawa et al. 2017). In this assignment, obesity is to be explained as health and interventions as well as approaches to be taken to resolve the health issues related to obesity are to be explained.

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Background

At present, obesity has become one of the vital health issues to be faced by wide number of individuals within all age groups. The Health Survey England 2017 informs that 34% of the people between the ages of 25-35 years are overweight and 23% of individuals between 25-35 years are obese in the UK. The statistics also revealed that people living in the most deprived areas within England are 11% more prone to develop obesity compared to people living in the least deprived areas (researchbriefings.parliament.uk, 2019). This indicates that more than half of the people between the ages of 25-35 years have already developed obesity.

Trends

The data published by the World Health Organisation in 2018 informed that in the UK nearly 28.1% of the adults are clinically obese with BMI rate more than 30. In 2014, nearly 62% of the adults in England were regarded to be obese or overweight compared to 53% individuals as seen 20 years earlier (researchbriefings.parliament.uk, 2019). It is expected that by 2023, 11 million adults in the UK would be obese with 461,000 cases of heart risk, 130,000 cases of cancer and 668,000 cases of diabetes mellitus would be reported (Wang et al. 2011). This informs that in the coming future the obesity rate among the adults is going to rise exponentially leading to cause wide ranges of health-related risk of obesity.

Needs Assessment

The needs assessment is regarded as the approach used to identify proprieties of the individuals in healthcare so that proper allocation of resources is done to improve gaps present between current and future situation in healthcare organisation (Stevens and Raferty, 2018).

The Joint Strategic Needs Assessment (JSNA) is referred to the process which is implemented by local authorities in the UK as well as Clinical Commissioning Groups for assessing the present as well as future healthcare and well-being needs of the public to inform them regarding local decision-making (healthandwellbeingbucks.org, 2019). The JSNA include characterising the health and well-being status of the local individuals, identifying health inequalities, illustrating healthcare trends, describes views of the local community and highlights the main findings (healthandwellbeingbucks.org, 2019).

The health and well-being status of the local population in the UK regarding obesity indicates that they need proper intervention programs and effective measures to be adopted in everyday life to maintain normal BMI. This is because most of them are involved in eating fast foods and avoid physical exercise which is contributing to their development of fat in the body (Burgoine et al. 2016).

Aim, Objectives and outline of the intervention

The intervention aims to lower the rate of obesity among 25-35 years individuals in England by encouraging them to eat healthy and involved in an active lifestyle.

The objectives of the intervention are:

To educate the adults between 25-35 years of age regarding the way to avoid and prevent obesity

To empower adults between the age of 25-35 years to determine healthy diets and adopt healthy lifestyle

To enhance knowledge of the adults between 25-35 years of age regarding the strategies to be adopted for avoiding and preventing obesity

The interventions to be used in promoting awareness regarding obesity:

Free physical education is to be provided to adults to help them understand the way they can live a healthy life

To inform adults regarding the advantage of healthy diets and foods to be avoided in order to prevent obesity

To encourage the companies in the food industry to promote healthy eating and lower amount of unsaturated fats as well as sugar in their packaged foods

To allow local authorities to take actions and arrange adult obesity prevention campaign and awareness

Intervention Theories and Model used

The key intervention to be used for lowering rates of adult obesity among 25-35 years individuals are educating people to take in healthy diet along with executing minimum of 1 hour of physical activity each day.

Social Cognitive Model informs the influence of experiences of individuals along with actions of others and impact of environmental factors on health behaviour of individuals. The model offers the opportunity to provide social support to individuals through self-efficacy, observation learning, instilling experiences and others (Annesi and Mareno, 2017). The model will be used to determine the reason behind the behavioural actions of adults that result them to develop obesity so that proper strategies can be accordingly developed to create change in behaviour among the individuals.

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The self-efficacy model informs the belief on has regarding their capacity to execute certain behaviours for producing specific performance attainments (Choo and Kang, 2015). The model is to be used to understand the capabilities of the adults within 25-35 years of age for adopting healthy diet and physical activity to avoid and control obesity.

The Health Belief Model informs six key concepts which are perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers and cues to actions (Abdeyazdan et al. 2017). The model will be used as it provides guidance regarding the aspects to be considered in arranging a health promotion for creating positive change in the behaviour of the individuals to resolve the increased rate of the disease.

Approaches implemented to the health interventions

The five key approaches taken in health promotion are behaviour change, medical, educational, social change and empowerment (Lewis, 2015).

Approaches implemented to the health interventions Approaches implemented to the health interventions Approaches implemented to the health interventions

Evaluations

The evaluation of the intervention is to be made by the health professionals by interviewing people before and after the intervention. This is to be done so that whether or not change in attitude is achieved can be examined.

The personal habits and daily habits of the people before and after intervention is to be evaluated to understand if the intervention is effective or not in creating change in behaviour.

Conclusion

The Health Belief Model along with Social Cognitive Model and Self-efficacy model will be used in planning the intervention for controlling and treatment of obesity among people of 25-35 years of age.

The prevention approaches include education, medical, empowerment, social and behavioural changes.

References

Abdeyazdan, Z., Moshgdar, H. and Golshiri, P., 2017. Evaluating the effect of lifestyle education based on health belief model for mothers of obese and overweight school-age children on obesity-related behaviors. Iranian journal of nursing and midwifery research, 22(3), p.248.

Annesi, J.J. and Mareno, N., 2017. Weight-Loss Treatment-induced Physical Activity Associated with Improved Nutrition through Changes in Social Cognitive Theory Variables in Women with Obesity. Health Behavior Research, 1(1), p.9.

Bray, G.A., Frühbeck, G., Ryan, D.H. and Wilding, J.P., 2016. Management of obesity. The Lancet, 387(10031), pp.1947-1956.

Burgoine, T., Forouhi, N.G., Griffin, S.J., Brage, S., Wareham, N.J. and Monsivais, P., 2016. Does neighborhood fast-food outlet exposure amplify inequalities in diet and obesity? A cross-sectional study. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 103(6), pp.1540-1547.

Choo, J. and Kang, H., 2015. Predictors of initial weight loss among women with abdominal obesity: a path model using self‐efficacy and health‐promoting behaviour. Journal of advanced nursing, 71(5), pp.1087-1097.

Furukawa, S., Fujita, T., Shimabukuro, M., Iwaki, M., Yamada, Y., Nakajima, Y., Nakayama, O., Makishima, M., Matsuda, M. and Shimomura, I., 2017. Increased oxidative stress in obesity and its impact on metabolic syndrome. The Journal of clinical investigation, 114(12), pp.1752-1761.

healthandwellbeingbucks.org 2019, What is the Joint Strategic Needs Assessment?, Available at: http://www.healthandwellbeingbucks.org/what-is-the-jsna [Accessed on: 10 December 2019]

Heymsfield, S.B. and Wadden, T.A., 2017. Mechanisms, pathophysiology, and management of obesity. New England Journal of Medicine, 376(3), pp.254-266.

Lewis, S., 2015. Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Health promotion practice, 16(4), pp.473-475.

researchbriefings.parliament.uk 2019, Obesity Statistics, Available at: https://researchbriefings.parliament.uk/ResearchBriefing/Summary/SN03336 [Accessed on: 10 December 2019]

Stevens, A. and Raferty, J., 2018. Health Care Needs Assessment: The Epidemiologically Based Needs Assessment Review. CRC Press.

Wang, Y.C., McPherson, K., Marsh, T., Gortmaker, S.L. and Brown, M., 2011. Health and economic burden of the projected obesity trends in the USA and the UK. The Lancet, 378(9793), pp.815-825.

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